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Written by industry experts, this book aims to provide you with an understanding of how to design and work with wearable sensors. Together these insights provide the first single source of information on wearable sensors that would be a valuable addition to the library of any engineer interested in this field. Wearable Sensors covers a wide variety of topics associated with the development and application of various wearable sensors. It also provides an overview and coherent summary of many aspects of current wearable sensor technology. Both industry professionals and academic researchers will benefit from this comprehensive reference which contains the most up-to-date information on the advancement of lightweight hardware, energy harvesting, signal processing, and wireless communications and networks. Practical problems with smart fabrics, biomonitoring and health informatics are all addressed, plus end user centric design, ethical and safety issues. Provides the first comprehensive resource of all currently used wearable devices in an accessible and structured manner. Helps engineers manufacture wearable devices with information on current technologies, with a focus on end user needs and recycling requirements. Combines the expertise of professionals and academics in one practical and applied source.
Sensor Technologies: Healthcare, Wellness and Environmental Applications explores the key aspects of sensor technologies, covering wired, wireless, and discrete sensors for the specific application domains of healthcare, wellness and environmental sensing. It discusses the social, regulatory, and design considerations specific to these domains. The book provides an application-based approach using real-world examples to illustrate the application of sensor technologies in a practical and experiential manner. The book guides the reader from the formulation of the research question, through the design and validation process, to the deployment and management phase of sensor applications. The processes and examples used in the book are primarily based on research carried out by Intel or joint academic research programs. “Sensor Technologies: Healthcare, Wellness and Environmental Applications provides an extensive overview of sensing technologies and their applications in healthcare, wellness, and environmental monitoring. From sensor hardware to system applications and case studies, this book gives readers an in-depth understanding of the technologies and how they can be applied. I would highly recommend it to students or researchers who are interested in wireless sensing technologies and the associated applications.” Dr. Benny Lo Lecturer, The Hamlyn Centre, Imperial College of London “This timely addition to the literature on sensors covers the broad complexity of sensing, sensor types, and the vast range of existing and emerging applications in a very clearly written and accessible manner. It is particularly good at capturing the exciting possibilities that will occur as sensor networks merge with cloud-based ‘big data’ analytics to provide a host of new applications that will impact directly on the individual in ways we cannot fully predict at present. It really brings this home through the use of carefully chosen case studies that bring the overwhelming concept of 'big data' down to the personal level of individual life and health.” Dermot Diamond Director, National Centre for Sensor Research, Principal Investigator, CLARITY Centre for Sensor Web Technologies, Dublin City University "Sensor Technologies: Healthcare, Wellness and Environmental Applications takes the reader on an end-to-end journey of sensor technologies, covering the fundamentals from an engineering perspective, introducing how the data gleaned can be both processed and visualized, in addition to offering exemplar case studies in a number of application domains. It is a must-read for those studying any undergraduate course that involves sensor technologies. It also provides a thorough foundation for those involved in the research and development of applied sensor systems. I highly recommend it to any engineer who wishes to broaden their knowledge in this area!" Chris Nugent Professor of Biomedical Engineering, University of Ulster What you’ll learnThe relevant sensing approaches and the hardware and software components required to capture and interpret sensor data. The importance of regulations governing medical devices. A design methodology for developing and deploying successful home- and community-based technologies, supported by relevant case studies. Health, wellness, and environmental sensing applications and how they work. The challenges and future directions of sensing in these domains. Who this book is for Sensor Technologies: Healthcare, Wellness and Environmental Applications is targeted at clinical and technical researchers, engineers, and students who want to understand the current state of the art in sensor applications in these domains. The reader gains a full awareness of the key technical and non-technical challenges that must be addressed in the development of successful end-to-end sensor applications. Real-world examples help give the reader practical insights into the successful development, deployment, and management of sensor applications. The reader will also develop an understanding of the personal, social, and ethical impact of sensor applications, now and in the future. Table of ContentsChapter One: Introduction Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the key challenges and drivers for sensor application development. The reader should also understand how sensor technologies can play a role in addressing some of the key challenges facing global society in the short to medium term. 1. Book overview 2. Drivers for Sensor Applications (Infrastructure Growth in Developing Countries, Advances in Energy Harvesting, New Applications, Cost reduction, Real-time monitoring of situations to avoid unplanned downtime, Security (personal and national), the internet of things). 3. Challenges for Sensor Applications (Power, Efficient Operation in Harsh Environments, Number of Deployable Nodes, Safety and Regulations, High Cost of Installation, Security and Reliability, sensor management) 4. Global Megatrends and the opportunities for sensing technologies o Water and Food Constraints o Aging Demographics o Public Health o Pandemics o Security Chapter 2: Sensing and Sensor Fundamentals Chapter Goal: Reader should understand existing sensor technologies, which can be used in healthcare, wellness, and environmental domains. They should also understand the role of smart sensors and smart phones as mobile sensing platforms and aggregators. 1. Sensing Modalities (Mechanical, MEMS, Optical, ISFET, μTAS) 2. Sensing Domains (Air, Water, Noise, Bacterial, Chemical, Kinematic, DNA, Physiological) 3. Functional Characterisation of Sensors o Communication methods – discrete, wired, wireless o Smart Sensors and Sensor Platforms § MSP430 (SHIMMER and telosB motes) § ATmega § PIC 4. Smart Phones as mobile sensor platforms 5. Selecting and specifying sensors Chapter 3 Key Sensor Technology Components – Hardware and Software Overview Chapter Goal: Reader should have a high level understanding of the key hardware and software components, which are necessary for the development of sensors systems and why technologies are selected for specific applications. 1. Overview – Sensor systems 2. MCU’s (TI MSP430, ATmega, PIC) a. ADCs b. Interrupts c. Real-time Clocks 3. Sensor Interfaces a. Digital b. Analog c. I2C 4. Communications – wired and wireless interfaces RS232/485, USB, Ethernet, FieldbusProprietary Short Range Wireless Protocols (e.g. ANT, BodyLAN, Sensium)Standard Short Range Protocols i. IEEE 802.15.6 ii. Bluetooth/Smart Bluetooth iii. 802.15.4 iv. UWB Medium Range i. Wi-Fi 5. Data storage (EEPROM, sd card, data forwarding) 6. Power management and Energy Harvesting 7. Operating Systems and Software Development Environments (SDK’s) Chapter 4 Sensor Network Architectures Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the various approaches to the design of sensor network architectures; scaling from body worn systems, to ambient sensing, to city-scale deployments. The reader should also understand the advantages and disadvantages of current and evolving sensor network architectures. 1. Sensor network architectures o Discrete Sensor o Sensor to aggregator o PAN/WPAN/smart clothing o Pervasive/Ambient sensor networks o Wide area networks (city-wide, country wide) 2. Challenges in developing and deploying sensor networks 3. Current and Proposed Solutions o Remote sensor management o Edge Processing o Power harvesting o New communication standards Chapter 5: Adding Vibrancy to Sensor Data Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the various methods to interpret and display sensor data to the user. They will understand the importance of creating a data analysis plan from the outset, and the different types of data analysis throughout the application stack. 1. Data Literacy – How can we intuitively answer questions with sensor data and contextualise answers 2. Data Quality a. Calibration b. Trust and Repudiation 3. Sensor Fusion – combining sensory data from disparate sources 4. Data Mining 5. Data Visualisation 6. Openness, data integration, virtual sensors 7. Exploiting the power of the cloud Chapter 6: Regulation and Standards Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the key technologies, which impact or influence the development of sensor deployment and applications including the emerging standards and regulatory considerations. 1. Regulatory Standards (US, EU, Japan) : why, which, and how standards impact your application 2. Regulatory Issues: Certification 3. Smartphones Considerations o Privacy and data security 4. Standards Bodies and Industry Groups o Continua Healthcare Alliance o ISO/IEEE 11073 5. Wearable Wireless Health Communication Standards Chapter 7: Biosensing in Everyday Life – Driving Biocontextual Aware Computing Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the social relationships that create opportunities and barriers for widespread, consumer-based biosensing. The reader should understand how the social world is shifting from sensor technologies of “should” to sensor technologies of “could” to facilitate new understandings of health and wellness and drive new methods and practices of personal data sharing. 1. Data Security and Ownership - Sharing and Managing Personal Data 2. Game Changing Pressure for Affordable Healthcare 3. Continuous, Personal Data is Improving Lives 4. Emerging Tech-Empowered Citizens 5. Sensing for Self-Discovery, Culture and Play 6. User feedback/Supporting sustainable human behaviours – leveraging the gaming culture Chapter 8: Development and Deployment of Sensor Technologies for Home and Community Settings Chapter Goal: Reader should understand how to design a sensor deployment for a home or community. The chapter informs the reader how to formulate the research question the deployment will address, how to develop prototypes, and manage and deploy them successful. The chapter will finish with exemplar case studies of real world sensor deployments. Study Design – The Right QuestionHome Deployment ElementsHome Deployment ManagementThe Prototyping Design ProcessCase Studies Chapter 9: Body Worn and Ambient Sensor Applications for Assessment, Monitoring, and Diagnostics Chapter Goal: Reader should at the end of this chapter have an understanding of the key characteristics of how body worn and ambient sensor applications, and how they vary according to the domain in which they are deployed. The reader will be presented with the key challenges faced in each domain, and emerging solutions for these challenges. 1. Drivers and Inhibitors (Incidence of chronic diseases, aging demographics, Adjusting provider compensation, prevention, medical work practice changes) 2. Hospital based sensing for assessment and diagnosis 3. Supervised Assessment and Monitoring in Community Settings 4. Home Based Applications o Clinical grade sensing for patient monitoring o Body worn sensing (e.g. PERS) for monitoring and alerting o Passive sensing for monitoring and alerting (e.g. ADL’s) 5. Key challenges Chapter 10: Wellness, Fitness and Lifestyle Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the key trends in how people use body worn sensors to manage their fitness and wellbeing. Key applications include: sensors for measuring activities in sports performance, activity/weight management and sleep tracking, 1. Drivers and Inhibitors 2. Sports and fitness applications (running, walking cycling, field sports) § Vital signs and physiological parameters § Fitness gaming – Wii Fit, Kinect § muscle movement, body stress levels, speed, distance, location § Fitness Statistics and Analysis 3. Outdoor Activities o Pressure (mountaineer and paragliding) o GPS (hiking, cycling, golf) 4. Obesity and weight management 5. Sleep o Baby Monitoring o Sleep Quality – health and social impacts o Sleep Apnoea Chapter 11: Environmental Monitoring for Health and Wellness Chapter Goal: Reader should understand how sensors and sensor networks are used for environmental monitoring, one of the key emerging applications domains. Apart from disaster monitoring, sensing also has the potential for air quality, weather monitoring, pollution etc.; with benefits for both urban and rural dwellers. 1. Drivers and Inhibitors o Correlations to health impacts 2. Home Sensing o Carbon Monoxide o Smoke Detectors o Passive Infrared (PIR) o Temperature o Sound o Sustainable Living 3. Smart Environments 4. Environmental Parameters (Noise, Water, Bacteria, Air Quality, Radiation, Urban Heat Islands) 5. Weather - Exceptional Event and Disaster Management Intelligence Chapter 12: Conclusions and Future Directions Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the key conclusions that the authors have outlined in the previous chapters. The reader should also gain an understanding of the key trends which will affect future sensor applications and how people will utilise these novel applications in their everyday lives. 1. Summary of the overall conclusions 2. Future Directions for Sensing o Use Centred Healthcare o Citizen centric sensing o Influence of urbanisation on health, wellness and lifestyle choices. o Sustainable human behaviour change
Part of the AMN book series, this book covers the principles, modeling and implementation as well as applications of resonant MEMS from a unified viewpoint. It starts out with the fundamental equations and phenomena that govern the behavior of resonant MEMS and then gives a detailed overview of their implementation in capacitive, piezoelectric, thermal and organic devices, complemented by chapters addressing the packaging of the devices and their stability. The last part of the book is devoted to the cutting-edge applications of resonant MEMS such as inertial, chemical and biosensors, fluid properties sensors, timing devices and energy harvesting systems.
Learn How to Design and Implement HAR Systems The pervasiveness and range of capabilities of today’s mobile devices have enabled a wide spectrum of mobile applications that are transforming our daily lives, from smartphones equipped with GPS to integrated mobile sensors that acquire physiological data. Human Activity Recognition: Using Wearable Sensors and Smartphones focuses on the automatic identification of human activities from pervasive wearable sensors—a crucial component for health monitoring and also applicable to other areas, such as entertainment and tactical operations. Developed from the authors’ nearly four years of rigorous research in the field, the book covers the theory, fundamentals, and applications of human activity recognition (HAR). The authors examine how machine learning and pattern recognition tools help determine a user’s activity during a certain period of time. They propose two systems for performing HAR: Centinela, an offline server-oriented HAR system, and Vigilante, a completely mobile real-time activity recognition system. The book also provides a practical guide to the development of activity recognition applications in the Android framework.
As diverse as tomorrow’s society constituent groups may be, they will share the common requirements that their life should become safer and healthier, offering higher levels of effectiveness, communication and personal freedom. The key common part to all potential solutions fulfilling these requirements is wearable embedded systems, with longer periods of autonomy, offering wider functionality, more communication possibilities and increased computational power. As electronic and information systems on the human body, their role is to collect relevant physiological information, and to interface between humans and local and/or global information systems. Within this context, there is an increasing need for applications in diverse fields, from health to rescue to sport and even remote activities in space, to have real-time access to vital signs and other behavioral parameters for personalized healthcare, rescue operation planning, etc. This book’s coverage will span all scientific and technological areas that define wearable monitoring systems, including sensors, signal processing, energy, system integration, communications, and user interfaces. Six case studies will be used to illustrate the principles and practices introduced.
The integration of electronics into textiles and clothing has opened up an array of functions beyond those of conventional textiles. These novel materials are beginning to find applications in commercial products, in fields such as communication, healthcare, protection and wearable technology. Electronic Textiles: Smart Fabrics and Wearable Technology opens with an initiation to the area from the editor, Tilak Dias. Part One introduces conductive fibres, carbon nano-tubes and polymer yarns. Part Two discusses techniques for integrating textiles and electronics, including the design of textile-based sensors and actuators, and energy harvesting methods. Finally, Part Three covers a range of electronic textile applications, from wearable electronics to technical textiles featuring expert chapters on embroidered antennas for communication systems and wearable sensors for athletes. Comprehensive overview of conductive fibres, yarns and fabrics for electronic textiles Expert analysis of textile-based sensors design, integration of micro-electronics with yarns and photovoltaic energy harvesting for intelligent textiles Detailed coverage of applications in electronic textiles, including werable sensors for athletes, embroidered antennas for communication and electronic textiles for military personnel
Since publication of the previous, the 3rd edition of this book, the sensor tech- logies have made a remarkable leap ahead. The sensitivity of the sensors became higher, the dimensions – smaller, the selectivity – better, and the prices – lower. What have not changed, are the fundamental principles of the sensor design. They still are governed by the laws of Nature. Arguably one of the greatest geniuses ever lived, Leonardo Da Vinci had his own peculiar way of praying. It went like this, “Oh Lord, thanks for Thou don’t violate Thy own laws. ” It is comforting indeed that the laws of Nature do not change with time, it is just that our appreciation of them becomes re?ned. Thus, this new edition examines the same good old laws of Nature that form the foundation for designs of various sensors. This has not changed much since the previous editions. Yet, the sections that describe practical designs are revised substantially. Recent ideas and developments have been added, while obsolete and less important designs were dropped. This book is about devices commonly called sensors. The invention of a microprocessor has brought highly sophisticated instruments into our everyday life. Numerous computerized appliances, of which microprocessors are integral parts, wash clothes and prepare coffee, play music, guard homes, and control room temperature. Sensors are essential components in any device that uses a digital signal processor.

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