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The chemical interaction of water and rock is one of the most fascinating an d multifaceted process in geology. The composition of surface water and groundwater is largely controlled by the reaction of water with rocks and minerals. At elevated temperature, hydrothermal features, hydrothermal 0 re deposits and geothermal fields are associated with chemical effects of water-rock interaction. Surface outcrops of rocks from deeper levels in the crust, including exposures of lower crustal and mantle rocks, often display structures that formed by interaction of the rocks with a supercritical aqueous fluid at very high pT conditions. Understanding water-rock interaction is also of great importance to applied geology and geochemistry, particularly in areas such as geothermal energy, nuclear waste repositories and applied hydrogeology. The extremely wide-ranging research efforts on the universal water-rock interaction process is reflected in the wide diversity of themes presented at the regular International Symposia on Water-Rock Interaction (WRI). Because of the large and widespread interest in water-rock interaction, the European Union of Geosciences organized a special symposium on "water-rock interaction" at EUGI0, the biannual meeting in Strasbourg 1999 convened by the editors of this volume. In contrast to the regular WRI symposia addressed to the specialists, the EUG 10 "water-rock interaction" symposium brought the subject to a general platform This very successful symposium showed the way to the future of water-rock reaction research.
This book is one out of 8 IAEG XII Congress volumes, and deals with Landslide processes, including: field data and monitoring techniques, prediction and forecasting of landslide occurrence, regional landslide inventories and dating studies, modeling of slope instabilities and secondary hazards (e.g. impulse waves and landslide-induced tsunamis, landslide dam failures and breaching), hazard and risk assessment, earthquake and rainfall induced landslides, instabilities of volcanic edifices, remedial works and mitigation measures, development of innovative stabilization techniques and applicability to specific engineering geological conditions, use of geophysical techniques for landslide characterization and investigation of triggering mechanisms. Focuses is given to innovative techniques, well documented case studies in different environments, critical components of engineering geological and geotechnical investigations, hydrological and hydrogeological investigations, remote sensing and geophysical techniques, modeling of triggering, collapse, run out and landslide reactivation, geotechnical design and construction procedures in landslide zones, interaction of landslides with structures and infrastructures and possibility of domino effects. The Engineering Geology for Society and Territory volumes of the IAEG XII Congress held in Torino from September 15-19, 2014, analyze the dynamic role of engineering geology in our changing world and build on the four main themes of the congress: environment, processes, issues, and approaches. The congress topics and subject areas of the 8 IAEG XII Congress volumes are: Climate Change and Engineering Geology. Landslide Processes. River Basins, Reservoir Sedimentation and Water Resources. Marine and Coastal Processes. Urban Geology, Sustainable Planning and Landscape Exploitation. Applied Geology for Major Engineering Projects. Education, Professional Ethics and Public Recognition of Engineering Geology. Preservation of Cultural Heritage.
In the late 18th century, Neptunists and Plutonists had controversial opinions about the formation of the Earth and its lithological units. The former believed that rocks formed from the crystallization of minerals in the early Earth’s oceans, the latter believed that rocks were formed in fire. Both theories ignored the importance of continuous water-rock interaction processes at Earth ́s surface and underground, which can enhance and define the type of volcanic activity, can cause the formation of secondary hydrothermal minerals and respective ore deposits, or simply alter the natural landscape by weathering. Although not visible at first glance, water-rock interaction plays a significant role in the daily life of humans. Many primary necessities of modern society, such as the availability of high-quality drinking water, the supply of fossil fuel and renewable energy types, the abundance of precious minerals, the remediation of contaminated natural sites, and the reconnaissance of geological hazards require a profound understanding of physicochemical processes interacting between liquid, solid and gas phases. Since 1974, when the first Water-Rock Interaction Symposia (WRI-1) was held in Prague (Czechoslovakia, now the Czech Republic), the Working Group on Water-Rock Interaction of the International Association of GeoChemistry (IAGC) has organized an international meeting every three years to present and discuss the most recent results in geochemical technologies. In 2010, WRI-13 attracted about 300 geoscientists affiliated with universities, research institutions, regulatory agencies and from private industry, from 35 countries to Guanajuato, Mexico. The 231 papers published in this volume describe novel advances in research related to interactive processes between the hydrosphere and the lithosphere. Innovative field-based studies, theoretical approaches and small-scale lab experiments are applied to reconstruct and combine pieces of the complex hydrological puzzle, and to confront society ́s impact on the environment. The papers reveal details on high-temperature reactions during the formation of hydrothermal ore deposits and geothermal reservoirs, practical case studies on groundwater quality and karst systems, environmental issues by mine tailings, novel technologies for the attenuation and remediation of contaminated sites, water/mineral interfacial processes on a micro- to macroscopic scale, the kinetics of weathering during low temperature conditions, examples for the advanced modeling of flow and transport processes as well as for CO2 reservoir injection, biochemical factors in surface and underground media, and the application of novel isotope techniques in rock/water/gas systems. Special emphasis in many papers is given on environmental concerns in abandoned mining districts, the occurrence and hazards of non-metals (especially arsenic) in exploited groundwater systems, and an increasing interest in mitigating CO2 emission by its injection into underground reservoirs. The papers in this volume are of wide-ranging interest to professionals and students in Earth sciences, including geochemistry, hydrochemistry, hydrology, geology, mineralogy, volcanology and environmental sciences, but also to decision-makers and engineers involved in the management of energy and natural resources, as well as professionals concerned about environmental issues.
Geochemical kinetics as a topic is now of importance to a wide range of geochemists in academia, industry, and government, and all geochemists need a rudimentary knowledge of the field. This book summarizes the fundamentals of geochemical kinetics with examples drawn especially from mineral dissolution and precipitation. It also encompasses discussion of high temperature processes and global geochemical cycle modeling. Analysis of textures of rocks, sediments, and mineral surfaces are incorporated throughout and provide a sub-theme of the book.