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This updated and expanded new edition continues the theme of the first edition of emphasizing the substantial growth of street gangs throughout the world. Although a substantial amount of research on street gangs has been conducted in recent decades, much of it has focused on the United States. This book summarizes much of the research being conducted in many other countries where the street gang phenomenon is currently developing, which includes poverty, the retreat of the state, increasing income inequality, urbanization, population growth, exploitation, marginalization, underground economies, racism, and ethnocentrism. The introductory section of the text addresses important topics on the various definitions of gangs and youth subcultures and presents methodological issues concerning the measurement of street gang activity in different countries. The second section offers an overview of the primary studies and most recent findings regarding American street gangs. The third section discusses recent and historical findings about street gangs in Europe and highlights studies in Great Britain, Northern Ireland, Scotland, France, Germany, Belgium, Scandinavia, and the Eastern European bloc. The fourth section provides current research on the Western Hemisphere and focuses on Canada, Jamaica, Brazil, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Trinidad, Ecuador, Tobago, and El Salvador and further examines the influence of American-style gangs on the region. Section five addresses street gangs in India, China, Japan, Hong Kong, and Korea with special emphasis on Russia. The sixth section discusses the emerging street gang activity in Africa and Australia, as well as many of the island nations of the Pacific Ocean. The final section compares gang research from the various parts of the world and projects universal trends. This book provides the most current and comprehensive overview of worldwide street gang activity stressing those features that are shared by all gangs regardless of nationality, ethnicity, or gender, and postulates what the future holds for street gangs throughout the world.