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This study aims at painting the rich, but necessarily complex, picture of peacekeeping in all of its contemporary incarnations. In order to have a good understanding of the basis of peacekeeping, the first part provides a historical overview of the classical era of peacekeeping. The second part deals with the quasi-revolutionary transformation of peacekeeping operations in the nineties. One of the most innovative aspects of this transformation is the emergence and activism of non-UN players. Special attention is given to this inasmuch as Canada and many other Western countries have now essentially abandoned the UN for these new players, specifically NATO and the European Union. The practices covered by current peace operations are meant to prevent conflicts, end conflicts, and maintain peace. With few exceptions, these practices always depend on diplomacy, negotiation, and consent. They can also consist, sometimes to a considerable degree, of the reconstruction of states, the reweaving of social, cultural and political links between parties, and reintegrating societies within the international community. It is true that these practices have met and are meeting with difficulties, and even dramatic failures, but what can be concluded from a broad evaluation of the results of peace operations in the last twenty years? Recent studies, the impressive multiplication of peace operations mandated by the UN or non-UN players, theoretical research and the surveys we have conducted in the field allow us to conclude that the operations have been effective. This report and the transformation of peace operations over the last 60 years lead us to conclude that it is in Canada's national interest to re-engage in these operations, in their old forms as well as their new ones. This is the goal of this fifth and last part of this study.