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This textbook describes the biomechanics of bone, cartilage, tendons and ligaments. It is rigorous in its approach to the mechanical properties of the skeleton yet it does not neglect the biological properties of skeletal tissue or require mathematics beyond calculus. Time is taken to introduce basic mechanical and biological concepts, and the approaches used for some of the engineering analyses are purposefully limited. The book is an effective bridge between engineering, veterinary, biological and medical disciplines and will be welcomed by students and researchers in biomechanics, orthopedics, physical anthropology, zoology and veterinary science. This book also: Maximizes reader insights into the mechanical properties of bone, fatigue and fracture resistance of bone and mechanical adaptability of the skeleton Illustrates synovial joint mechanics and mechanical properties of ligaments and tendons in an easy-to-understand way Provides exercises at the end of each chapter
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Finite element analysis (FEA) in implantology is performed in design applications concerning the complex topology of an implant, according to theoretical assumptions about and clinical data concerning the biomechanical nature of skeletal tissue. Implants are placed in topologically and physiologically complex sites, and major disagreement exists in literature about various aspects concerning their modeling and analysis. Current research seeks to improve the implementation of an implant by the use of short implants, which negate the necessity of additional surgical procedures in regions of limited bone height. However, short implants with large crown heights introduce biomechanical complications associated with increased stress and strain distributions in skeletal tissue, which may cause bone loss and implant failure. The short implant is characterized by the geometric ratio of the crown height to the implant length, called the crown-to-implant (C/I) ratio. In this work nonlinear FEA was performed to investigate the effects and significance of the C/I ratio on long-term implant stability. A finite element model was developed according to literature, and emulation of previous research and comparison of reported results were performed. Comparison of results demonstrated significant sources of error in previous research, which are argued to be caused by mesh-dependency from common model idealizations in literature. A convergence test was then performed, which verified the mesh-dependency of results and challenged the reliability of some common model assumptions and methods of analysis in literature. A 16-point design of experiments was then performed to evaluate the significance and influence of the C/I ratio, considering a proposed novel method for evaluating results and predicting long-term stability. Analysis of results demonstrated that the C/I ratio augments the inherent biomechanical effects of an implant design, particularly overloading strain concentrations at implant interface features. The use of short implants with high C/I ratios is determined to be inadvisable, considering the physiological response of tissue to strain distributions and biological context. A novel, multiscale material model is then proposed to describe the short-term accumulation of damage and biomechanical remodeling response in orthotropic skeletal tissue, as a potential solution to the mesh-dependency of results.
The structures of living tissues are continually changing due to growth and response to the tissue environment, including the mechanical environment. Tissue Mechanics is an in-depth look at the mechanics of tissues. Tissue Mechanics describes the nature of the composite components of a tissue, the cellular processes that produce these constituents, the assembly of the constituents into a hierarchical structure, and the behavior of the tissue’s composite structure in the adaptation to its mechanical environment. Organized as a textbook for the student needing to acquire the core competencies, Tissue Mechanics will meet the demands of advanced undergraduate or graduate coursework in Biomedical Engineering, as well as, Chemical, Civil, and Mechanical Engineering. Key features: Detailed Illustrations Example problems, including problems at the end of sections A separate solutions manual available for course instructors A website ( that has been established to provide supplemental material for the book, including downloadable additional chapters on specific tissues, downloadable PowerPoint presentations of all the book's chapters, and additional exercises and examples for the existing chapters. About the Authors: Stephen C. Cowin is a City University of New York Distinguished Professor, Departments of Biomedical and Mechanical Engineering, City College of the City University of New York and also an Adjunct Professor of Orthopaedics, at the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in New York, New York. In 1985 he received the Society of Tulane Engineers and Lee H. Johnson Award for Teaching Excellence and a recipient of the European Society of Biomechanics Research Award in 1994. In 1999 he received the H. R. Lissner medal of the ASME for contributions to biomedical engineering. In 2004 he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and he also received the Maurice A. Biot medal of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Stephen B. Doty is a Senior Scientist at Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York and Adjunct Professor, School of Dental and Oral Surgery, Columbia University, New York, NY. He has over 100 publications in the field of anatomy, developmental biology, and the physiology of skeletal and connective tissues. His honors include several commendations for participation in the Russian/NASA spaceflights, the Spacelab Life Science NASA spaceflights, and numerous Shuttle missions that studied the influence of spaceflight on skeletal physiology. He presently is on the scientific advisory board of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Houston, Texas.
This book portrays the commonality of tissue micro-structure that dictates physiological function in various organs (microstructure-function relation). Tissue and organ models are used to illustrate physiological functions based on microstructure. Fiber scale properties such as orientation and crimp are described in detail. Structurally-based constitutive models are given throughout the book, not only to avoid ambiguities in material characterization, but also to offer insights into the function, structure, and mechanics of tissue components. A statement of future directions of the field is also given, including how advancements, such as state-of-the-art computational modeling and optical measurements of tissue/cells structures, are taking structure-based modeling to the next level. This book also: Provides a comprehensive view of tissue modeling across multiple systems Broadens readers’ understanding of state-of-the-art computational modeling and optical measurements of tissue/cells structures Describes in detail fiber scale properties such as orientation and crimp
This is a comprehensive and accessible overview of what is known about the structure and mechanics of bone, bones, and teeth. In it, John Currey incorporates critical new concepts and findings from the two decades of research since the publication of his highly regarded The Mechanical Adaptations of Bones. Crucially, Currey shows how bone structure and bone's mechanical properties are intimately bound up with each other and how the mechanical properties of the material interact with the structure of whole bones to produce an adapted structure. For bone tissue, the book discusses stiffness, strength, viscoelasticity, fatigue, and fracture mechanics properties. For whole bones, subjects dealt with include buckling, the optimum hollowness of long bones, impact fracture, and properties of cancellous bone. The effects of mineralization on stiffness and toughness and the role of microcracking in the fracture process receive particular attention. As a zoologist, Currey views bone and bones as solutions to the design problems that vertebrates have faced during their evolution and throughout the book considers what bones have been adapted to do. He covers the full range of bones and bony tissues, as well as dentin and enamel, and uses both human and non-human examples. Copiously illustrated, engagingly written, and assuming little in the way of prior knowledge or mathematical background, Bones is both an ideal introduction to the field and also a reference sure to be frequently consulted by practicing researchers.
Orthopedic Biomechanics sheds light on an important and interesting discipline at the interface between medical and natural sciences. Understanding the effects of mechanical influences on the human body is the first step toward developing innovative treatment and rehabilitation concepts for orthopedic disorders. This book provides valuable information on the forces acting on muscles, tendons, and bones. Beginning with the step-by-step fundamentals of physics and mechanics, it goes on to cover the function and loading of joints, movement in two- and three-dimensions, and the properties of biological tissues. This book explains the practical importance of biomechanics, including special chapters addressing the mechanical causes of disk prolapse, load on the spine in sitting and standing positions, and the correlation between mechanical loading and bone density. Key Features: Limited use of complex vector equations while providing in-depth treatment analysis Exquisitely illustrated, detailed descriptions of the mechanical aspects of every major joint in the body: hip, shoulder, knee, and lumbar spine Extensive references for further information Valuable appendixes describing the interaction between mechanical and biological functions as well as mathematical tools necessary to understand technically demanding concepts This book also analyzes techniques for changing the effects on bones and joints through therapy, training, external aids, modified behavior, and ergonomic improvements. An essential resource for orthopedists and physical therapists alike, it will help you understand past and current scientific work in the field and how to apply state-of-the-art solutions to the problems you'll encounter on a daily basis.

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