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As discussed in this book, a large body of evidence indicates that selenium is a cancer chemopreventive agent. Further evidence points to a role of this element in reducing viral expression, in preventing heart disease, and other cardiovascular and muscle disorders, and in delaying the progression of AIDS in HIV infected patients. Selenium may also have a role in mammalian development, in male fertility, in immune function and in slowing the aging process. The mechanism by which selenium exerts its beneficial effects on health may be through selenium-containing proteins. Selenium is incorporated into protein as the amino acid selenocysteine. Selenocysteine utilizes a specific tRNA, a specific elongation factor, a specific set of signals, and the codeword, UGA, for its cotranslational insertion into protein. It is indeed the 21st naturally occurring amino acid to be incorporated into protein and marks the first and only expansion of the genetic code since the code was deciphered in the mid 1960s.
This book introduces readers to a wide range of applications for elements in Group 16 of the periodic table, such as, optical fibers for communication and sensing, X-ray imaging, electrochemical sensors, data storage devices, biomedical applications, photovoltaics and IR detectors, the rationale for these uses, the future scope of their applications, and expected improvements to existing technologies. Following an introductory section, the book is broadly divided into three parts—dealing with Sulfur, Selenium, and Tellurium. The sections cover the basic structure of the elements and their compounds in bulk and nanostructured forms; properties that make these useful for various applications, followed by applications and commercial products. As the global technology revolution necessitates the search for new materials and more efficient devices in the electronics and semiconductor industry, Applications of Chalcogenides: S, Se, and Te is an ideal book for a wide range of readers in industry, government and academic research facilities looking beyond silicon for materials used in the electronic and optoelectronic industry as well as biomedical applications.
Nucleic acids are the fundamental building blocks of DNA and RNA and are found in virtually every living cell. Molecular biology is a branch of science that studies the physicochemical properties of molecules in a cell, including nucleic acids, proteins, and enzymes. Increased understanding of nucleic acids and their role in molecular biology will further many of the biological sciences including genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology. Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology is intended to bring to light the most recent advances in these overlapping disciplines with a timely compilation of reviews comprising each volume.
Research over the years has demonstrated that free radicals mediated oxidative stress lies at the helm of almost all patho-physiological phenomena. These findings emphasize on the need to understand the underlying molecular mechanism(s) and their critical role in the pathogenesis. This book aims to focus on these areas to provide readers a comprehensive outlook about the major redox sensitive pathways and networks involved in various disease conditions. In the first chapter of the book, basic information about the oxidative stress, its generation, its biomarkers and its role in body are discussed. In the next three chapters, the role of oxidative stress in various pathologies ranging from neurological disorders, to cardiovascular diseases, cancers, metabolic diseases and ageing have been described. Chapter 5 cumulatively describes the most important molecular signaling pathways that are affected by reactive oxygen species (ROS). These are the mechanisms which are common denominators in various pathological states. In the next part of the book, various antioxidant strategies to target and mitigate ROS have been discussed with details on the mechanisms. Selenium, being the research focus and interest of the authors for years, the role of selenium as an antioxidant as part of selenoproteins has been included in the book. Finally, the book culminates with authors’ perspective on the future of the redox biology field. Throughout the book, efforts have been made to use simplified language and suitable figures for ease to understand the contents. Although the authors have tried to touch on all the different aspects of oxidative stress in detail, the fact that it is a continuously growing field with updates coming every day, there might be some areas which might not be described in depth. This book is designed for students, young scientists to get acquainted with the redox biology. Overall, this book is a reference to understand the redox regulation of cellular signaling pathways involved in pathogenesis.
Selenium has a long history of association with human health and disease. This essential trace element exerts its important biological role in selenoproteins. "Selenoproteins and Mimics" presents the latest developments in selenoproteins, their functional imitation by biomimetic chemistry and biology, and their relationship with human health and diseases. This book provides both the basic biology and biochemistry knowledge of selenoproteins, and sophisticated approaches for the development of new selenoprotein mimics. It's a valuable reference for researchers in biological technology, chemical syntheses, and medicine design. Junqiu Liu is a professor at the State Key Lab of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Jilin University, China. Guimin Luo is a professor at the Key Lab of Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Jilin University, China.Ying Mu is a professor at the State Key Lab of Industrial Control Technology, Zhejiang University, and guest professor at the Key Lab of Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Jilin University, China.
Covering advanced nutrition with a comprehensive, easy-to-understand approach, Biochemical, Physiological, and Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition, 3rd Edition focuses on the biology of human nutrition at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels. It addresses nutrients by classification, and describes macronutrient function from digestion to metabolism. This edition includes the new MyPlate dietary guide and recommendations from the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010, plus coverage of the historical evolution of nutrition and information on a wide range of vitamins, minerals, and other food components. In Biochemical, Physiological, and Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition, lead authors Martha H. Stipanuk and Marie A. Caudill are joined by a team of nutrition experts in providing clear, concise, coverage of advanced nutrition. 55 expert contributors provide the latest information on all areas of the nutrition sciences. Nutrition Insight boxes discuss hot topics and take a closer look at basic science and everyday nutrition. Clinical Correlation boxes show the connection between nutrition-related problems and their effects on normal metabolism. Food Sources boxes summarize and simplify data from the USDA National Nutrient Database on the amount and types of foods needed to reach the recommended daily allowances for vitamins and minerals. DRIs Across the Life Cycle boxes highlight the latest data from the Institute of Medicine on dietary reference intakes for vitamins and minerals, including coverage of infants, children, adult males and females, and pregnant and lactating women. Life Cycle Considerations boxes highlight nutritional processes or concepts applicable to individuals of various ages and in various stages of the life span. Thinking Critically sections within boxes and at the end of chapters help in applying scientific knowledge to "real-life" situations. Lists of common abbreviations provide an overview of each chapter's content at a glance. Comprehensive cross-referencing by chapters and illustrations is used throughout. Current references and recommended readings connect you to nutrition-related literature and provide additional tools for research. Coverage of the USDA's MyPlate dietary guide reflects today's new approach to diet and nutrition. Recommendations outlined in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 are incorporated throughout the book. Updated format features more subheadings, tables, and bullets, making it easier to learn and recall key points. Updates of key chapters and boxes reflect significant changes within the fields of nutrition, biology, molecular biology, and chemistry. NEW illustrations simplify complex biochemical, physiological, and molecular processes and concepts.
This book provides readers with a clear and reliable account of the extraordinary story of selenium and its role in human health. It is written in a readable and user-friendly manner, and takes into account the considerable amount of fresh information that has been published over the past decade. The book if for the reader who wants to make an informed judgment about the competing claims for and against Selenium’s value as a nutritional supplement.

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