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During the Enlightenment, rationality becomes not a property belonging to all humans but something that one must achieve. This transformation has the effect of excluding non-whites and non-males from the domain of reason. Heikes seeks to uncover the source of this exclusion, which she argues stems from the threat of subjectivism inherent in modern thinking. As an alternative, she considers post-Cartesian reactions of modern representationalism as well as ancient Greek understandings of mind as simply one part of a functionally diverse soul. In the end, she maintains that treating rationality as an evolutionarily situated virtue concept allows for an understanding of rationality that recognizes diversity and that grounds substantive moral concepts.
Given that Enlightenment rationality developed in Europe as European nations aggressively claimed other parts of the world for their own enrichment, scholars have made rationality the subject of postcolonial critique, questioning its universality and objectivity. In On Reason, the late philosopher Emmanuel Chukwudi Eze demonstrates that rationality, and by extension philosophy, need not be renounced as manifestations or tools of Western imperialism. Examining reason in connection to the politics of difference—the cluster of issues known variously as cultural diversity, political correctness, the culture wars, and identity politics—Eze expounds a rigorous argument that reason is produced through and because of difference. In so doing, he preserves reason as a human property while at the same time showing that it cannot be thought outside the realities of cultural diversity. Advocating rationality in a multicultural world, he proposes new ways of affirming both identity and difference. Eze draws on an extraordinary command of Western philosophical thought and a deep knowledge of African philosophy and cultural traditions. He explores models of rationality in the thought of philosophers from Aristotle, René Descartes, Francis Bacon, and Thomas Hobbes to Noam Chomsky, Richard Rorty, Hilary Putnam, and Jacques Derrida, and he considers portrayals of reason in the work of the African thinkers and novelists Chinua Achebe, Ngugi wa Thiong’o, and Wole Soyinka. Eze reflects on contemporary thought about genetics, race, and postcolonial historiography as well as on the interplay between reason and unreason in the hearings of South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission. He contends that while rationality may have a foundational formality, any understanding of its foundation and form is dynamic, always based in historical and cultural circumstances.
For most, race is evident when we look in the mirror. We all have it. Race is immutable, a genetic flip of a relationship coin. By itself, apart from culture and class, our race doesn't affect the things we all want in life. Yet, some choose to make their race synonymous with their identity, to see racial heritage as a personal achievement. We develop opinions based on associations we make with race, embracing irrational beliefs from what others and the media tell us, because we want to be safe against racial violence. We generalize from a few experiences. We talk as though race matters, though it shouldn't in a democratic, capitalistic, pluralistic society. We talk, failing to recognize common race-baiting triggers, unproductive analogies and metaphors, racial agendas, and the inflammatory language in flawed arguments that mire discussions about race in emotion and resentment. This study dissects irrational beliefs about race. Logic errors, racial double standards, and hypocrisy are explained; bad laws that appease activist groups are deconstructed; separatist and integrationist beliefs and how they affect race perceptions are examined; and the psychology of perpetuating and sustaining racial prejudice is also reviewed. This study also reviews deceptive strategies, many of which counter capitalistic tenets, based on the pretense that racism and discrimination exist where they don't to suppress competition and extort social or economic concessions, rewards, or long-term advantage. Rational thinking is offered as one solution.
Race, Identity and Representation in Education offers new cultural and poststructuralist approaches to the topic of race relations in education, the humanities and the social sciences, emphasizing the themes of identity and representation. Contributors: Michael Apple, Cameron McCarthy, Warren Crichlow, Michael Omi, Howard Winant, Cornel West, Ali Behdad, Roxana Ng, William F. Pinar, Leslie Roman, Lawrence Grossberg, Richard Hatcher, Barry Troyna, Fazal Rizvi, Catherine Raissiguier, Christine Sleeter, Glenn Hudak, Deborah P. Britzman, Kelvin Santiago-Válles, Gladys Jiménez-Muñoz, Laura M. Lamash, Elizabeth Ellsworth, Susan Edgerton, Michele Wallace, Manthia Diawara, Laura Elisa Perez, Patrick McGee, Edward Said, and Hazel Carby.
A presentation of the argument that fair political representation for disadvantaged groups requires their presence in legislative bodies, which states that this can be done without compromising principles of democratic freedom and equality.
`A scholarly lexicon and stimulating "rough guide" for cultural studies as it confronts and navigates the shifting sands of past, present and future' - Tim O'Sullivan, Head of Media and Cultural Production, De Montfort University `I'm certain undergraduate and postgraduate readers will consider the Dictionary to be a highly useful resource. Taken together, the definitions provide a effective overview of the field' - Stuart Allan, Reader in Cultural Studies, University of the West of England, Bristol `Any student wishing to acquaint her or himself with the field of cultural studies will find this an enormously useful book' - Joke Hermes, Editor, European Journal of Cultural Studies and Lecturer in Television Studies, University of Amsterdam Containing over 200 entries on key concepts and theorists, the Dictionary provides an unparalled guide to the terrain of cultural studies. The definitions are authoritative, stimulating and written in an accessible style. There are up-to-date entries on new concepts and innovative approaches. An ideal teaching and research resource, the Dicitionary can also be used as a companion to Chris Barker's highly successful Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice (Second Edition, SAGE, 2003) and in conjunction with his Making Sense of Cultural Studies (SAGE, 2002)

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