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During the Enlightenment, rationality becomes not a property belonging to all humans but something that one must achieve. This transformation has the effect of excluding non-whites and non-males from the domain of reason. Heikes seeks to uncover the source of this exclusion, which she argues stems from the threat of subjectivism inherent in modern thinking. As an alternative, she considers post-Cartesian reactions of modern representationalism as well as ancient Greek understandings of mind as simply one part of a functionally diverse soul. In the end, she maintains that treating rationality as an evolutionarily situated virtue concept allows for an understanding of rationality that recognizes diversity and that grounds substantive moral concepts.
Rational Politics: Decisions, Games, and Strategy focuses on the unified presentation of politics as a rational human activity, including the paradox of voting and proportional representation. The publication first offers information on the study of rational politics, political intrigue in the Bible, and candidate strategies. Topics include the factor of timing in presidential primaries, rational positions in a multicandidate race, primacy of issues and their spatial representation, and politics in the story of Esther. The text then elaborates on voting paradoxes and the problems of representation, voting power, and threats and deterrence. Discussions focus on a sequential view of the Cuban missile crisis, use of threat power in Poland, power anomalies in the European Community Council of Ministers, probability of the paradox of voting, empirical examples of the paradox of voting, and problems in achieving proportional representation. The book is a valuable reference for researchers interested in rational politics.
Race, Identity and Representation in Education offers new cultural and poststructuralist approaches to the topic of race relations in education, the humanities and the social sciences, emphasizing the themes of identity and representation. Contributors: Michael Apple, Cameron McCarthy, Warren Crichlow, Michael Omi, Howard Winant, Cornel West, Ali Behdad, Roxana Ng, William F. Pinar, Leslie Roman, Lawrence Grossberg, Richard Hatcher, Barry Troyna, Fazal Rizvi, Catherine Raissiguier, Christine Sleeter, Glenn Hudak, Deborah P. Britzman, Kelvin Santiago-Válles, Gladys Jiménez-Muñoz, Laura M. Lamash, Elizabeth Ellsworth, Susan Edgerton, Michele Wallace, Manthia Diawara, Laura Elisa Perez, Patrick McGee, Edward Said, and Hazel Carby.
A philosophical argument that rationality is based on, or produced from, difference, and is not only worth retaining but necessary in a culturally diverse world.
For most, race is evident when we look in the mirror. We all have it. Race is immutable, a genetic flip of a relationship coin. By itself, apart from culture and class, our race doesn't affect the things we all want in life. Yet, some choose to make their race synonymous with their identity, to see racial heritage as a personal achievement. We develop opinions based on associations we make with race, embracing irrational beliefs from what others and the media tell us, because we want to be safe against racial violence. We generalize from a few experiences. We talk as though race matters, though it shouldn't in a democratic, capitalistic, pluralistic society. We talk, failing to recognize common race-baiting triggers, unproductive analogies and metaphors, racial agendas, and the inflammatory language in flawed arguments that mire discussions about race in emotion and resentment. This study dissects irrational beliefs about race. Logic errors, racial double standards, and hypocrisy are explained; bad laws that appease activist groups are deconstructed; separatist and integrationist beliefs and how they affect race perceptions are examined; and the psychology of perpetuating and sustaining racial prejudice is also reviewed. This study also reviews deceptive strategies, many of which counter capitalistic tenets, based on the pretense that racism and discrimination exist where they don't to suppress competition and extort social or economic concessions, rewards, or long-term advantage. Rational thinking is offered as one solution.
A stinging critique of the link between global capitalism and U.S. multiculturalisms

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