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During the Enlightenment, rationality becomes not a property belonging to all humans but something that one must achieve. This transformation has the effect of excluding non-whites and non-males from the domain of reason. Heikes seeks to uncover the source of this exclusion, which she argues stems from the threat of subjectivism inherent in modern thinking. As an alternative, she considers post-Cartesian reactions of modern representationalism as well as ancient Greek understandings of mind as simply one part of a functionally diverse soul. In the end, she maintains that treating rationality as an evolutionarily situated virtue concept allows for an understanding of rationality that recognizes diversity and that grounds substantive moral concepts.
For most, race is evident when we look in the mirror. We all have it. Race is immutable, a genetic flip of a relationship coin. By itself, apart from culture and class, our race doesn't affect the things we all want in life. Yet, some choose to make their race synonymous with their identity, to see racial heritage as a personal achievement. We develop opinions based on associations we make with race, embracing irrational beliefs from what others and the media tell us, because we want to be safe against racial violence. We generalize from a few experiences. We talk as though race matters, though it shouldn't in a democratic, capitalistic, pluralistic society. We talk, failing to recognize common race-baiting triggers, unproductive analogies and metaphors, racial agendas, and the inflammatory language in flawed arguments that mire discussions about race in emotion and resentment. This study dissects irrational beliefs about race. Logic errors, racial double standards, and hypocrisy are explained; bad laws that appease activist groups are deconstructed; separatist and integrationist beliefs and how they affect race perceptions are examined; and the psychology of perpetuating and sustaining racial prejudice is also reviewed. This study also reviews deceptive strategies, many of which counter capitalistic tenets, based on the pretense that racism and discrimination exist where they don't to suppress competition and extort social or economic concessions, rewards, or long-term advantage. Rational thinking is offered as one solution.
A philosophical argument that rationality is based on, or produced from, difference, and is not only worth retaining but necessary in a culturally diverse world.
Race, Identity and Representation in Education offers new cultural and poststructuralist approaches to the topic of race relations in education, the humanities and the social sciences, emphasizing the themes of identity and representation. Contributors: Michael Apple, Cameron McCarthy, Warren Crichlow, Michael Omi, Howard Winant, Cornel West, Ali Behdad, Roxana Ng, William F. Pinar, Leslie Roman, Lawrence Grossberg, Richard Hatcher, Barry Troyna, Fazal Rizvi, Catherine Raissiguier, Christine Sleeter, Glenn Hudak, Deborah P. Britzman, Kelvin Santiago-Válles, Gladys Jiménez-Muñoz, Laura M. Lamash, Elizabeth Ellsworth, Susan Edgerton, Michele Wallace, Manthia Diawara, Laura Elisa Perez, Patrick McGee, Edward Said, and Hazel Carby.
This study is an attempt to examine the relationships between religious belief and the humanism of the Enlightenment in the philosophy of Hegel and of a group of thinkers who related to his thought in various ways during the 1840's. It begins with a study of the ways in which Hegel attempted to evolve a genuinely Christian humanism by his demonstration that the modern understanding of man as a free and rational subject derived its strength and validity from the union of God and human existence in the incarnation. The rest of this study is con cerned with two different forms of opposition to Hegel: first, the criti cal discipleship of the Young Hegelians and Moses Hess, who insisted that Hegel's notion of Christian humanism was false because religious belief was necessarily inimical to a clear consciousness of social evil and the determination to abolish it; second, the religious opposition to the Enlightenment in the thought of Schelling and Kierkegaard, which emphasized God's transcendence to human reason and the insig nificance of secular history. In the years leading up to the revolution of 1848, Hegel's synthesis was rejected in favour of the assertion of atheistic humanism or religious otherworldliness. Chapter One, after discussing the young Hegel's critique of the social and political effects of Christianity, examines the union of religi ous belief, speculative philosophy and the rational state in Hegel's mature system.
A presentation of the argument that fair political representation for disadvantaged groups requires their presence in legislative bodies, which states that this can be done without compromising principles of democratic freedom and equality.

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