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Due to parallel advances in signal processing and computer hardware in the last 15 years, quantitative ultrasound techniques have reached maturity, allowing for the construction of quantitative maps or images of soft tissues. This book will focus on 5 modern research topics related to quantitative ultrasound of soft tissues: - Spectral-based methods for tissue characterization, tissue typing, cancer detection, etc.; - Envelope statistics analysis as a means of quantifying and imaging tissue properties; - Ultrasound elastography for quantifying elastic properties of tissues (several clinical ultrasound scanners now display elastography images); - Scanning acoustic microscopy for forming images of mechanical properties of soft tissues with micron resolution (desktop size scanners are now available); and - Ultrasound computer tomography for breast cancer imaging (new ultrasound tomography systems have been developed and are currently under evaluation clinically).
Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of bone is a relatively recent research field. The research community is steadily growing, with interdisciplinary branches in acoustics, medical imaging, biomechanics, biomedical engineering, applied mathematics, bone biology and clinical sciences, resulting in significant achievements in new ultrasound technologies to measure bone, as well as models to elucidate the interaction and the propagation of ultrasonic wave in complex bone structures. Hundreds of articles published in specialists journals are accessible from the Web and from electronic libraries. However, no compilation and synthesis of the most recent and significant research exist. The only book on QUS of bone has been published in 1999 at a time when the propagation mechanisms of ultrasound in bone were still largely unknown and the technology was immature. The research community has now reached a critical size, special sessions are organized in major international meetings (e.g., at the World Congress of Biomechanics, the annual meetings of the Acoustical Society of America, International Bone Densitometry Workshop, etc...). Consequently, the time has come for a completely up to date, comprehensive review of the topic. The book will offer the most recent experimental results and theoretical concepts developed so far and is intended for researchers, graduate or undergraduate students, engineers, and clinicians who are involved in the field. The central part of the book covers the physics of ultrasound propagation in bone. Our goal is to give the reader an extensive view of the mathematical and numerical models as an aid to understand the QUS potential and the types of variables that can be determined by QUS in order to characterize bone strength. The propagation of sound in bone is still subject of intensive research. Different models have been proposed (for example, the Biot theory of poroelasticity and the theory of scattering have been used to describe wave propagation in cancellous bone, whereas propagation in cortical bone falls in the scope of guided waves theories). An extensive review of the models has not been published so far. We intend in this book to present in details the models that are used to solve the direct problem and strategies that are currently developed to address the inverse problem. This will include analytical theories and numerical approaches that have grown exponentially in recent years. Most recent experimental findings and technological developments will also be comprehensively reviewed.
Strong roots in basic science and research enhance clinical practice. This book is a rich source of information for basic scientists and translational researchers who focus on musculoskeletal tissues and for orthopedic and trauma surgeons seeking relevant up-to-date information on molecular biology and the mechanics of musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration. The book opens by discussing biomaterials and biomechanics, with detailed attention to the biologic response to implants and biomaterials and to the surface modification of implants, an important emerging research field. Finite element analysis, mechanical testing standards and gait analysis are covered. All these chapters are strongly connected to clinical applications. After a section on imaging techniques, musculoskeletal tissues and their functions are addressed, the coverage including, for example, stem cells, molecules important for growth and repair, regeneration of cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and peripheral nerves, and the genetic basis of orthopedic diseases. State-of-the-art applications such as platellet rich plasma were included. Imaging is a daily practice of scientists and medical doctors. Recent advancements in ultrasonography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance, bone mineral density measurements using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and scintigraphy was covered following conventional radiography basics. Further extensive sections are devoted to pathology, oncogenesis and tumors, and pharmacology. Structure is always related with function. Surgical anatomy was therefore covered extensively in the last section.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Information Processing in Medical Imaging, IPMI'97, held in Poultney, Vermont, USA, in June 1997. The 27 revised full papers presented were selected from a total of 96 submissions; also included are 31 poster presentations. The book is divided into topical sections on shape models and matching, novel imaging methods, segmentation, image quality and statistical character of measured data, registration/mapping, statistical models in functional neuroimaging, and MR analysis and processing.
Ultrasonic Scattering in Biological Tissues contains 14 chapters written by world-renowned authorities who describe current work related to theoretical and experimental aspects of ultrasonic scattering phenomenon in biological tissues. Introductory material regarding ultrasonic scattering in biological tissues is presented, followed by discussions on theoretical treatments, experimental approaches, in vitro results on selective tissues, in vivo results on various tissues, and the current status of quantitative backscatter imaging. Ultrasonic Scattering in Biological Tissues will be an excellent reference for biomedical engineers, ultrasound specialists, biophysicists, and radiology researchers.
Biomechanics covers a wide field such as organ mechanics, tissue mechanics, cell mechanics to molecular mechanics. At the 6th World Congress of Biomechanics WCB 2010 in Singapore, authors presented the largest experimental studies, technologies and equipment. Special emphasis was placed on state-of-the-art technology and medical applications. This volume presents the Proceedings of the 6th WCB 2010 which was hold in conjunction with 14th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (ICBME) & 5th Asia Pacific Conference on Biomechanics (APBiomech). The peer reviewed scientific papers are arranged in the six themes Organ Mechanics, Tissue Mechanics, Cell Mechanics, Molecular Mechanics, Materials, Tools, Devices & Techniques, Special Topics.

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