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The fifth edition of Psychological Foundations of Musical Behavior appears at a time of continuing worldwide anxiety and turmoil. We have learned a lot about human musical behavior, and we have some understanding of how music can meet diverse human needs. In this exceptional new edition, the authors have elected to continue a “one volume” coverage of a broad array of topics, guided by three criteria: The text is comprehensive in its coverage of diverse areas comprising music psychology; it is comprehensible to the reader; and it is contemporary in its inclusion of information gathered in recent years. Chapter organization recognizes the traditional and more contemporary domains, with special emphases on psychoacoustics, musical preference, learning, and the psychological foundations of rhythm, melody, and harmony. Following the introductory preview chapter, the text examines diverse views of why people have music and considers music’s functions for individuals, its social values, and its importance as a cultural phenomenon. “Functional music” and music as a therapeutic tool is discussed, including descriptions and relationships involving psychoacoustical phenomena, giving considerable attention to perception, judgment, measurement, and physical and psychophysical events. Rhythmic behaviors and what is involved in producing and responding to rhythms are explored. The organization of horizontal and vertical pitch, tonality, scales, and value judgments, as well as related pedagogical issues are also considered. The basic aspects of musical performance, improvisation, composition, existing musical preferences and tastes, approaches to studying the affective response to music with particular emphasis on developments in psychological aesthetics are examined. The text closely relates the development and prediction of musical ability, music learning as a form of human learning, and music abnormalities, concluding with speculation regarding future research directions. The authors offer their latest review of aspects of human musical behavior with profound recognition of music’s enduring values.