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Group litigation has been recognised by political scientists in the States as a useful method of gaining ground and attracting publicity for pressure groups since the turn of the century. In Britain however, recognition that the courts fill such a role has come more slowly. Despite this lack of recognition, pressure through law is far from a modern phenomenon. As the authors show, such cases can be identified in Britain as early as 1749 when abolitionists used the court to test conflicting views of slavery in common law. This book looks at the extent to which pressure groups in Britain use litigation, presenting a view of the courts as a target for campaigners and a vehicle for campaigning. It begins with a description of the tradition of pressure through law in Britain, tracing the development of a parallel tradition in the United States, which has been influential in shaping current British attitudes. The authors analyse the significance of the political environment in Britain in test-case strategy. In contrast with America, Britain has no written constitution and no Bill of Rights and its lack of Freedom of Information legislation makes both litigation and the monitoring of its effects very difficult. However, the centralised character of the British government means that the effects of lobbying are rather more visible in the corridors of power. The authors examine a large number of case studies in order to analyse current practice, and they look at the rapidly changing European and international scene, discussing transnational law, the European community and the Council of Europe. They also look at the campaign tactics of global organisations such as Amnesty and Greenpeace. Carol Harlow and Richard Rawlings are experienced in public law and familiar with political science literature. They are therefore able to relate legal systems to the political process, in a book designed to be accessible and important to lawyers, to political scientists and to lobby group activists.
"Pore Pressure through Earth Mechanical Systems" is a constitutive field theory that relates compactional strain to composition in the earth. Minerals and fluids are the dominant natural molecular matter in the earth. [Mass-energy] and [stress/strain] conservation are shown to be algebraically equivalent in a closed mathematical form in the earth. Relatively few measurements are needed to describe the earth's mechanical field. The physical basis for this theory is universal i.e. [force --balance] under [mass-energy] conserved boundary conditions. Earth mechanics theory satisfies Niels Bohr's "correspondence principle." It simultaneously explains both the accepted and the newer theories. The earth's "molecular mechanics" theory uses Newtonian mechanics as a limit as did Niels Bohr's when he revealed Quantum mechanics. The earth's elastic and plastic mechanical limits are connected to each other by their common (mineral-fluid) constituents. Earth mechanics depends directly to the laws of Newton, Coulomb, and Hooke. Earth mechanics theory is firmly rooted in fundamental mechanics between Newton's and Bohr's. Subsurface engineering involves a quantitative balance between human regulated forces in a well and those that are drilled into the earth. Pressures and stresses in the earth that were derived from empirical forced-fits were treated with a great deal of skepticism and given large engineering uncertainties. Earth Mechanical Systems present a new [closed-form] analytical design approach to drilling and subsurface engineering. Mechanical systems tend toward the minimum energy state. Each of these [force-balanced] equation systems is in a [closed-mathematical-form]. The earth is composed almost entirely of minerals and fluid. This [closed-form] synthesis relates physical laws to matter in the earth's sedimentary crust. Contact [email protected] for general information or to order this book. Visit http: //www.Force-Balanced.net for more information on the earth's constitutive mechanical systems and their many applications. Copyright Phil Holbrook, 2003, all rights reserved. For book collectors; this book is an earth domain parallel to Newton's Principia. The energy of gravity acts in concert with electrostatic energy in the earth's sedimentary crust. The book's subtitle, "The force-balanced physics of the earth's sedimentary crust," describes the resulting scientific advancement. Autographed-by-author copies of this book can be had by contacting, [email protected] A great deal of information about the science can be seen at http: //www.Force-Balanced.net/textbook.htm.
Intended as an introduction to the field of biomedical engineering, this book covers the topics of biomechanics (Part I) and bioelectricity (Part II). Each chapter emphasizes a fundamental principle or law, such as Darcy's Law, Poiseuille's Law, Hooke's Law, Starling's Law, levers, and work in the area of fluid, solid, and cardiovascular biomechanics. In addition, electrical laws and analysis tools are introduced, including Ohm's Law, Kirchhoff's Laws, Coulomb's Law, capacitors and the fluid/electrical analogy. Culminating the electrical portion are chapters covering Nernst and membrane potentials and Fourier transforms. Examples are solved throughout the book and problems with answers are given at the end of each chapter. A semester-long Major Project that models the human systemic cardiovascular system, utilizing both a Matlab numerical simulation and an electrical analog circuit, ties many of the book's concepts together. Table of Contents: Basic Concepts / Darcy's Law / Poiseuille's Law: Pressure-Driven Flow Through Tubes / Hooke's Law: Elasticity of Tissues and Compliant Vessels / Starling's Law of the Heart, Windkessel Elements and Volume / Euler's Method and First-Order Time Constants / Muscle, Leverage, Work, Energy and Power
The contributions to this volume address central issues in public law. There are chapters dealing with the general theoretical foundations of public law, including the relationship of theory and values, and discussion of the central idea of representation. The nature of the public-private divide continues to be of importance as a result of changes in the nature of government, and as a consequence of the passage of the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA). Closely related to this is the contractualisation of government. The relationship between the courts, Parliament, and the executive has always been a central concern for public lawyers. It has been brought to the fore by the passage of the HRA, leading to discussions about the extent to which the courts should show deference to executive and legislative choices when engaging in judicial review. This vexed issue is especially apparent when it comes to deciding how Parliament, the executive, and the courts should treat 'non-citizens' orthose who might threaten the security of the state. It is of course impossible to discuss public law without considering European Union law. There is discussion of core issues relating to the legitimacy of the EU, and its constitutional foundations. The role of courts in the process of integration is analysed, and the desirability of judicial review over rule-making is considered. The relationship between public and private modes of enforcing EU law is reviewed. In addition, there is a discussion of the way in which different levels of government inter-relate, viewed through the lens of devolution in the UK.
This collection of fifteen essays by leading experts in regulation is unique in its focus on the constitutional implications of recent regulatory developments in the UK, the EU, and the US. The chapters reflect current developments and crises which are significant in many areas of public policy, not only regulation. These include the development of governance in place of government in many policy areas, the emergence of networks of public and private actors, the credit crunch, techniques for countering climate change, the implications for fundamental rights of regulatory arrangements and the development of complex accountability mechanisms designed to promote policy objectives. Constitutional issues discussed in The Regulatory State include regulatory governance, models of economic and social regulation, non-parliamentary rule-making, the UK's devolution arrangements and regulation, the credit crisis, the rationing of common resources, regulation and fundamental rights, the European Competition Network, private law making and European integration, innovative regulator sanctions recently introduced in the UK, the auditing of regulatory reform, and parliamentary oversight and judicial review of regulators. The introductory chapter focuses on testing times for regulation, and the concluding chapter draws ten lessons from the substantive chapters, noting the importance of regulatory diversity, the complexity of networks and relations between regulatory actors and the executive, the new challenges to regulatory habits posed by climate change and the credit crisis, the wider economic and legal context in which regulation takes place and the accountability networks - including judicial review, parliamentary oversight and audit - within which regulation operates.
Vintage Feminism: classic feminist texts in short form WITH A NEW INTRODUCTION BY THE AUTHOR Every day, women around the world are confronted with a dilemma – how to look. In a society embroiled in a cult of female beauty and youthfulness, pressure on women to conform physically is constant and all-pervading. In this shortened edition you will find the essence of Wolf’s groundbreaking book. It is a radical, gripping and frank exposé of the tyranny of the beauty myth, its oppressive function and the destructive obsession it engenders.

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