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Police do not and cannot prevent crime. This alarming thesis is explored by David Bayley, one of the most prolific and internationally renowned authorities on criminal justice and policing, in Police for the Future. Providing a systematic assessment of the performance of the police institution as a whole in preventing crime, the study is based on exhaustive research, interviews, and first hand observation in five countries--Australia, Canada, Great Britain, Japan, and the United States. It analyzes what police are accomplishing in modern democratic societies, and asks whether police organizations are using their resources effectively to prevent crime. Bayley assesses the impediments to effective crime prevention, describes the most promising reforms currently being tested by the police, and analyzes the choices that modern societies have with respect to creating truly effective police forces. He concludes with a blueprint for the creation of police forces that can live up to their promise to reduce crime and enhance public safety. Written for both the general public and the specialist in criminal justice, Police for the Future offers a unique multinational perspective on one of society's most basic institutions.
This analysis of policing throughout the modern world demonstrates how many of the contentious issues surrounding the police in recent years - from paramilitarism to community policing - have their origins in the fundamentals of the police role. The author argues that this results from a fundamental tension within this role. In liberal democratic societies, police are custodians of the state's monopoly of legitimate force, yet they also wield authority over citizens who have their own set of rights.
The forty-percent drop in crime that occurred across the U.S. from 1991 to 2000 remains largely an unsolved mystery. Even more puzzling is the eighty-percent drop over nineteen years in New York City. Twice as long and twice as large, it is the largest crime decline on record. In The City That Became Safe, Franklin E. Zimring seeks out the New York difference through a comprehensive investigation into the city's falling crime rates. The usual understanding is that aggressive police created a zero-tolerance law enforcement regime that drove crime rates down. Is this political sound bite true-are the official statistics generated by the police accurate? Though zero-tolerance policing and quality-of-life were never a consistent part of the NYPD's strategy, Zimring shows the numbers are correct and argues that some combination of more cops, new tactics, and new management can take some credit for the decline. That the police can make a difference at all in preventing crime overturns decades of conventional wisdom from criminologists, but Zimring also points out what most experts have missed: the New York experience challenges the basic assumptions driving American crime- and drug-control policies. New York has shown that crime rates can be greatly reduced without increasing prison populations. New York teaches that targeted harm reduction strategies can drastically cut down on drug related violence even if illegal drug use remains high. And New York has proven that epidemic levels of violent crime are not hard-wired into the populations or cultures of urban America. This careful and penetrating analysis of how the nation's largest city became safe rewrites the playbook on crime and its control for all big cities.
For decades, the Catholic Church and historical peace churches such as the Mennonites have come together in ecumenical discussions about war and peace. The dividing point has always been between pacifism, the view held by Mennonites and other peace churches, and the just war theory that dominates Catholic thinking on the issue. Given the transformation of global relations over this period?increased interdependency and communication as well as the fall of the Soviet Union, emerging nationalism movements, and the slow development of international courts?the time is right to rethink the Christian response to war.Gerald Schlabach has proposed just policing theory as a way to narrow the gap between just war and pacifist traditions. If the world can address problems of violence through a police model instead of a conventional military model, there may be a role for Christians from all traditions. In this volume, Schlabach presents his theory and has invited a number of scholars representing Catholic, Mennonite, and other traditions to respond to the theory and address a number of key questions: What do we mean by policing?Can policing solve conflicts beyond one?s own borders?How does just policing theory address terrorism?Is international policing possible, and what would it look like?Is just policing a Christian solution that meets the criteria of both traditions?This important volume offers a fresh and meaningful discussion to help Christians of all traditions navigate the difficult questions of how to live in these times of violence and war.?What makes us uncomfortable intellectually as well as practically is usually something that challenges our way of understanding and acting. The uncomfortable feeling is often an indication that creativity is at work in a way that makes us look at what we have ignored. Just Policing, Not War, makes me uncomfortable as a pacifist. But perhaps it is in the creative challenging even of what is dear to me?pacifism?that something new and wonderful can be born. The book is eminently worthwhile precisely in its challenge to the just war and the pacifist traditions.? Rene McGraw?Jane Jacobs, prohibition, and the chaos created by military intrusions in Iraq all remind us that policing can only work when a relatively coherent ?relationality? renders disruptive elements marginal. These essays draw on two complementary sets of religious practices to suggest how an international police action could be shaped as an effective alternative to the invariably counter-productive imposing a ?military solution,? so allowing political and ecclesial analyses to converge towards imagining fresh forms of order.? David Burrell, C.S.C. Hesburgh Professor in Philosophy and Theology University of Notre Dame ?If September 11, 2001 was murder rather than war then we desperately need an account of what just policing might look like. Which means this book is extremely important. For here we have the beginnings of an exploration of what just policing might actually entail not only theoretically but also in practice. Not only are the war/pacifism investigated, but also the institutional questions surrounding international relations as well as what the Church must be if just policing is possible are explored in these essays. I cannot recommend this book highly enough for anyone concerned with issues of war and peace.? Stanley Hauerwas Professor of Theological Ethics Duke University, Divinity School Durham, North Carolina ?In proposing the concept of ?just policing,? this book breaks new ground in the long discussion between Christians committed to pacifism and those utilizing a ?Just War? framework. A focus on policing rather than on war responds to the need for order in society, which both sides would agree is necessary, while at the same time exemplifying the limitations to force that the just war theory calls for. ?Just Policing? also provides a fresh way to conceptualize possible responses in the current struggle against terrorism. Schlabach and his collaborators are to be commended for both their exploration of practical examples, and their underlying commitment to searching for common ground between ?just war? and pacifist Christians. Pacifists will find much to ponder here, as they seek ways to respond to the need for peace and order in the world without using violence.? Judy Zimmerman Herr Co-Director, MCC Peace Office Mennonite Central Committee, Akron, PA
The enclosed papers are the culmination of a project Dr. John Crank and Dr. Colleen Kadleck carried out assessing issues facing the police into the early 21st century. The papers are future oriented, in the sense that they anticipate trends visible today. Everywhere, the contributing scholars found that the organizational concept, practice, and function of the police were undergoing transition. Yet, the seeming state-level hardening of the police function was ubiquitous. Two themes were noteworthy. On the one hand, in developing or ‘second world’ countries, police face endemic problems of corruption, organized crime, and drugs. Police, in response, are undergoing centralization and intensification of law enforcement activities. In countries with first world economies – Canada, the United States, and Australia – contributors discovered trends toward expansion of the police function, a trend described by Brodeur as toward 'high policing'. It reflects the growing reliance on surveillance for crime control and for the tracking of minority, indigenous, and immigrant populations in crime prevention efforts. The results suggest that governments, sometimes encouraged by their citizenry, seem increasingly to rely on the police to deal with a broad array of social as well as criminal problems. This book was originally published as a special issue of Police Practice and Research.
Community policing has been a buzzword in Anglo-American policing for the last two decades, somewhat vague in its definition but generally considered to be a good thing. In the UK the notion of community policing conveys a consensual policing style, offering an alternative to past public order and crimefighting styles. In the US community policing represents the dominant ideology of policing as reflected in a myriad of urban schemes and funding practices, the new orthodoxy in North American policing policy-making, strategies and tactic. But it has also become a massive export to non-western societies where it has been adopted in many countries, in the face of scant evidence of its appropriateness in very different contexts and surroundings. critical analysis of concept of community policing worldwide assesses evidence for its effectiveness, especially in the USA and UK highlights often inappropriate export of community policing models to failed and transitional societies.
Crime in the United States has fluctuated considerably over the past thirty years, as have the policy approaches to deal with it. During this time criminologists and other scholars have helped to shed light on the role of incarceration, prevention, drugs, guns, policing, and numerous other aspects to crime control. Yet the latest research is rarely heard in public discussions and is often missing from the desks of policymakers. This book accessibly summarizes the latest scientific information on the causes of crime and evidence about what does and does not work to control it. Thoroughly revised and updated, this new version of Crime and Public Policy will include twenty chapters and five new substantial entries. As with previous editions, each essay reviews the existing literature, discusses the methodological rigor of the studies, identifies what policies and programs the studies suggest, and then points to policies now implemented that fail to reflect the evidence. The chapters cover the principle institutions of the criminal justice system (juvenile justice, police, prisons, probation and parole, sentencing), how broader aspects of social life inhibit or encourage crime (biology, schools, families, communities), and topics currently generating a great deal of attention (criminal activities of gangs, sex offenders, prisoner reentry, changing crime rates). With contributions from trusted, leading scholars, Crime and Public Policy offers the most comprehensive and balanced guide to how the latest and best social science research informs the understanding of crime and its control for policymakers, community leaders, and students of crime and criminal justice.

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