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Plasma methods that effectively combine ultraviolet radiation, active chemicals, and high electric fields offer an alternative to conventional water treatment methods. However, knowledge of the electric breakdown of liquids has not kept pace with this increasing interest, mostly due to the complexity of phenomena related to the plasma breakdown process. Plasma Discharge in Liquid: Water Treatment and Applications provides engineers and scientists with a fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical phenomena associated with plasma discharges in liquids, particularly in water. It also examines state-of-the-art plasma-assisted water treatment technologies. The Physics & Applications of Underwater Plasma Discharges The first part of the book describes the physical mechanism of pulsed electric breakdown in water and other liquids. It looks at how plasma is generated in liquids and discusses the electronic and bubble mechanism theories for how the electric discharge in liquid is initiated. The second part of the book focuses on various water treatment applications, including: Decontamination of volatile organic compounds and remediation of contaminated water Microorganism sterilization and other biological applications Cooling water treatment Drawing extensively on recent research, this one-stop reference combines the physics and applications of electric breakdown in liquids in a single volume. It offers a valuable resource for scientists, engineers, and students interested in the topic of plasmas in liquids.
Written by a team of pioneering scientists from around the world, Low Temperature Plasma Technology: Methods and Applications brings together recent technological advances and research in the rapidly growing field of low temperature plasmas. The book provides a comprehensive overview of related phenomena such as plasma bullets, plasma penetration into biofilms, discharge-mode transition of atmospheric pressure plasmas, and self-organization of microdischarges. It describes relevant technology and diagnostics, including nanosecond pulsed discharge, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, and laser-induced fluorescence measurement, and explores the increasing research on atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma jets. The authors also discuss how low temperature plasmas are used in the synthesis of nanomaterials, environmental applications, the treatment of biomaterials, and plasma medicine. This book provides a balanced and thorough treatment of the core principles, novel technology and diagnostics, and state-of-the-art applications of low temperature plasmas. It is accessible to scientists and graduate students in low-pressure plasma physics, nanotechnology, plasma medicine, and materials science. The book is also suitable as an advanced reference for senior undergraduate students.
Filling the gap for a book that covers not only plasma in gases but also in liquids, this is all set to become the standard reference for this topic. It provides a broad-based overview of plasma-chemical and plasmacatalytic processes generated by electrical discharges in gases, liquids and gas/liquid environments in both fundamental and applied aspects by focusing on their environmental and green applications and also taking into account their practical and economic viability. With the topics addressed by an international group of major experts, this is a must-have for scientists, engineers, students and postdoctoral researchers specializing in this field.
Non-thermal (cold) plasmas at atmospheric pressure have recently found many breakthrough applications in biology, medicine, and food security. Plasmas can efficiently kill bacteria, yeasts, moulds, spores, biofilms and other hazardous microorganisms, including potential bio-terrorism agents. They can be employed for bio-decontamination and sterilization of surfaces, medical instruments, water, air, food, even of living tissues without causing their damage. Direct or indirect plasma interaction with living cells of microorganisms or even humans enables novel bio-medical applications, e.g. treatment of skin diseases and ulcers. Plasma-enhanced blood coagulation coupled with its antiseptic properties proved success in wound healing and opens new possibilities in surgery, emergency medicine and military applications. Plasma treatment allows cell manipulations, their removal and targeted transfer into the injured area, which can accelerate wound healing. Plasma induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) of tumor cells brings forth a great potential for cancer treatment. Besides, plasma enables painless treatment of dental caries, root canal disinfection, and other dentistry applications. This book is a selection of reviewed manuscripts issuing from the NATO Advanced Research Workshop Plasma for bio-decontamination, medicine and food security held in Jasná, Slovakia, on 15-18 March 2011. It provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge and research activities focused at the plasma applications in areas such as bio-decontamination, water chemistry, effects on cells; biofilm inactivation, UV sterilization, and medicine, especially tissue treatment and wound healing, as well as dentistry and food security.
Plasma technologies present an environmentally-friendly and versatile way of treating textile materials in order to enhance a variety of properties such as wettability, liquid repellency, dyeability and coating adhesion. Recent advances made in commercially viable plasma systems have greatly increased the potential of using plasma technology in industrial textile finishing. This pioneering book provides an essential guide to both the technology and science related to plasmas and its practical applications in the textile industry. The first part of the book discusses the science and technology behind plasmas. Chapters give detailed and comprehensive descriptions on the characteristics of plasmas and methods of control and treatment in the processing of textiles. Both low pressure cold plasma and atmospheric pressure cold plasma processes are described as well as the diagnosis and control of plasma parameters in plasma generating reactors. A chapter is devoted to the use of plasma technology to achieve nanoscale treatment of textile surfaces. The second part of the book concentrates on specific applications of plasma technologies. Chapters cover treatments for water and oil repellency of textiles, engineering of biomedical textiles and woollen finishing techniques through the use of plasma technologies. Further chapters cover the modification of fibres for use in composites and the potential use of plasma technologies for the finishing of fabrics made of man made fibres. The final chapter in the book gives a comprehensive analysis of the surface chemical and physical characterisation of plasma treated fabrics. Written by a distinguished international team of experts, Plasma technologies for textiles is an invaluable reference for researchers, scientists and technologists alike. Summarises both the science and technology of plasma processing, and its practical applications Discusses how plasma technology improves textile properties such as wettability and liquid repelling An invaluable reference for researchers, scientists and technologists
Details the water research applications of nanotechnology in various areas including environmental science, remediation, membranes, nanomaterials, and water treatment At the nano size, materials often take on unique and sometimes unexpected properties that result in them being ‘tuned’ to build faster, lighter, stronger, and more efficient devices and systems, as well as creating new classes of materials. In water research, nanotechnology is applied to develop more cost-effective and high-performance water treatment systems, as well as to provide instant and continuous ways to monitor water quality. This volume presents an array of cutting-edge nanotechnology research in water applications including treatment, remediation, sensing, and pollution prevention. Nanotechnology applications for waste water research have significant impact in maintaining the long-term quality, availability, and viability of water. Regardless of the origin, such as municipal or industrial waste water, its remediation utilizing nanotechnology can not only be recycled and desalinized, but it can simultaneously detect biological and chemical contamination. Application of Nanotechnology in Water Research describes a broad area of nanotechnology and water research where membrane processes (nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and nanoreactive membranes) are considered key components of advanced water purification and desalination technologies that remove, reduce, or neutralize water contaminants that threaten human health and/or ecosystem productivity and integrity. Various nanoparticles and nanomaterials that could be used in water remediation (zeolites, carbon nanotubes, self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports, biopolymers, single-enzyme nanoparticles, zero-valent iron nanoparticles, bimetallic iron nanoparticles, and nanoscale semiconductor photocatalysts) are discussed. The book also covers water-borne infectious diseases as well as water-borne pathogens, microbes, and toxicity approach.
Clearly structured in five major sections on applications, this monograph covers such hot technologies as nanotechnology, solar cell technology, biomedical and clinical applications, and sustainability. Since the topic, applications and readers are highly interdisciplinary, the book bridges materials science, industrial chemistry, physics, and engineering - making it a must-have for researchers in industry and academia, as well as those working in application-oriented plasma technology. FROM THE CONTENTS: Environmental Technologies - Thermal and Non-Thermal Plasma for Environmental Applications - Atmospheric Plasma Air Pollution Control, Water and Waste Treatment Technology - Chemistry of Organic Polluctants in Atmospheric Plasmas - and more Applications in Life Science and Medicine - Pharmaceutical Engineering by Plasma Techniques - Applications of Pulsed Power and Plasmas to Biosystems and Living Organisms - Plasma Sterilization at low pressure and Antibacterial Effect of Short-Pulse Discharge - Plasma-Enhanced Synnthesis of Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications - and more Solar Cells - Plasma Processing for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells - Characteristics of VHF Plasma with Large Area - Diagnostics and Modeling of SiH 4/H2 Plasmas for the Deposition of Microcrystalline Silicon - and more Diamond like Carbon Films - Applications of DLCs to Bio-Processing - DLC Thin Films Grown in Pulsed Plasmas - Plasma Processing of Nanocrystalline Semiconductive Cubic Borone Nitride Thin FIlms - and more Bascic and Novel Approaches - Novel Electromagnetic and Reactive Media from Microplasmas - Crystallized nanodusst Particle Growth in Low Pressure Cold Plasmas - Thomson Scattering Diagnostics of Discharge Plasmas - Collection and Removal of Fine Particles in Plasma Chambers - and more