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This volume contains the detailed text of the major lectures and the abstracts of the lectures delivered during the seminar sessions. The subject of our NATO Advanced Study Institute in 1981 was the Application of Modern Dynamics to Celestial Mechanics and Astrodynamics. This Preface will first explain the terminology, then it will review shortly the content of the lectures and will outline how all this was made possible and, finally, it will disclose our future aspirations. Periodicity is an extremely important concept in our field, therefore, it should not be unexpected that our NATO Advanced Study Institute is enjoying a period of three years. Since 1972 we conducted four Institutes with increasing interest and en thusiasm displayed by the participants, lecturers and by this Director. Celestial Mechanics or Dynamical Astronomy is part of Astronomy dealing mostly with the motion of natural celestial bodies. Astrodynamics or Orbital Mechanics is the application of dynamics to problems of Space Engineering and it treats mostly the dynamical behavior of artificial satellites and space probes. The underlying mathematical and dynamical principles are, of course, the same for Celestial Mechanics and for Astrodynamics. This Director of the Institute and Editor of the Proceedings was extremely fortunate to have obtained the cooperation of out standing lecturers who were clear, thorough, understandable, patient to answer questions, but above all, had knowledge of the ix V. Szebehely (ed.). Applications of Modern Dynamics to Celestial Mechanics and Astrodynamics. ix-x.