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This book addresses in detail multifaceted approaches to boosting nutrient use efficiency (NUE) that are modified by plant interactions with environmental variables and combine physiological, microbial, biotechnological and agronomic aspects. Conveying an in-depth understanding of the topic will spark the development of new cultivars and strains to induce NUE, coupled with best management practices that will immensely benefit agricultural systems, safeguarding their soil, water, and air quality. Written by recognized experts in the field, the book is intended to provide students, scientists and policymakers with essential insights into holistic approaches to NUE, as well as an overview of some successful case studies. In the present understanding of agriculture, NUE represents a question of process optimization in response to the increasing fragility of our natural resources base and threats to food grain security across the globe. Further improving nutrient use efficiency is a prerequisite to reducing production costs, expanding crop acreage into non-competitive marginal lands with low nutrient resources, and preventing environmental contamination. The nutrients most commonly limiting plant growth are N, P, K, S and micronutrients like Fe, Zn, B and Mo. NUE depends on the ability to efficiently take up the nutrient from the soil, but also on transport, storage, mobilization, usage within the plant and the environment. A number of approaches can help us to understand NUE as a whole. One involves adopting best crop management practices that take into account root-induced rhizosphere processes, which play a pivotal role in controlling nutrient dynamics in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. New technologies, from basic tools like leaf color charts to sophisticated sensor-based systems and laser land leveling, can reduce the dependency on laboratory assistance and manual labor. Another approach concerns the development of crop plants through genetic manipulations that allow them to take up and assimilate nutrients more efficiently, as well as identifying processes of plant responses to nutrient deficiency stress and exploring natural genetic variation. Though only recently introduced, the ability of microbial inoculants to induce NUE is gaining in importance, as the loss, immobilization, release and availability of nutrients are mediated by soil microbial processes.
Nutrient Use Efficiency in Plants: Concepts and Approaches is the ninth volume in the Plant Ecophysiology series. It presents a broad overview of topics related to improvement of nutrient use efficiency of crops. Nutrient use efficiency (NUE) is a measure of how well plants use the available mineral nutrients. It can be defined as yield (biomass) per unit input (fertilizer, nutrient content). NUE is a complex trait: it depends on the ability to take up the nutrients from the soil, but also on transport, storage, mobilization, usage within the plant, and even on the environment. NUE is of particular interest as a major target for crop improvement. Improvement of NUE is an essential pre-requisite for expansion of crop production into marginal lands with low nutrient availability but also a way to reduce use of inorganic fertilizer.
This book provides a survey of recent advances in the development of antibiofilm agents for clinical and environmental applications. The fact that microbes exist in structured communities called biofilms has slowly become accepted within the medical community. We now know that over 80% of all infectious diseases are biofilm-related; however, significant challenges still lie in our ability to diagnose and treat these extremely recalcitrant infections. Written by experts from around the globe, this book offers a valuable resource for medical professionals seeking to treat biofilm-related disease, academic and industry researchers interested in drug discovery and instructors who teach courses on microbial pathogenesis and medical microbiology.
Westcott's Plant Disease Handbook, 7th Edition, should be useful to anyone with a keen interest in gardening including but not limited to botanical gardeners, landscape architects, florists, master gardeners, nurserymen, seed and fungicide dealers, pesticide applicators, arborists, cooperative extension agents, plant pathologists and consultants. The seventh edition uses the traditional convenient format of previous editions providing easy access to essential information quickly with special dictionary-type entries on plant hosts and on symptoms. New and updated material includes: Significant taxonomic changes in fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes Recently discovered diseases and new hosts for previously known plant-pathogens Changes in chemicals and pesticides and changes in regulations governing their use Integrated pest management and biological control This book also provides useful cross references, indexes, illustrative plates of 34 key diseases, and 40 black and white illustrations of other diseases.
Advances in Agronomy continues to be recognized as a leading reference and a first-rate source of the latest research in agronomy. Major reviews deal with the current topics of interest to agronomists, as well as crop and soil scientists. As always, the subjects covered are varied and exemplary of the myriad subject matter dealt with by this long-running serial. Editor Donald Sparks, former president of the Soil Science Society of America and current president of the International Union of Soil Science, is the S. Hallock du Pont Chair of Plant and Soil Sciences at The University of Delaware. * Maintains the highest impact factor among serial publications in Agriculture * Presents timely reviews on important agronomy issues * Enjoys a long-standing reputation for excellence in the field
Determining the composition and properties of complex hydrocarbon mixtures in petroleum, synthetic fuels, and petrochemical products usually requires a battery of analytical techniques that detect and measure specific features of the molecules, such as boiling point, mass, nuclear magnetic resonance frequencies, etc. there have always been a need for new and improved analytical technology to better understand hydrocarbon chemistry and processes. This book provides an overview of recent advances and future challenges in modern analytical techniques that are commonly used in hydrocarbon applications. Experts in each of the areas covered have reviewed the state of the art, thus creating a book that will be useful to readers at all levels in academic, industry, and research institutions.
Volume 65 contains six reviews covering key contemporary topics on crop and soil sciences. The topics are varied and exemplary of the array of subjects dealt with by this long-running serial. With this latest volume, Advances in Agronomy continues to be recognized as a leading reference and a first-rate source of the latest and best research in agronomy. Key Features * Advances in Fertigation * The Genetics, Pathology, and Molecular Biology of T-Cytoplasm Male Sterility in Maize * Application of Capillary Electrophoresis to Anion Speciation in Soil Water Extracts * Advances in Solution Culture Methods for Plant Mineral Nutrition Research * Radiation Use Efficiency * The Effects of Cultivation on Soil Nitrogen Mineralization

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