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This book addresses in detail multifaceted approaches to boosting nutrient use efficiency (NUE) that are modified by plant interactions with environmental variables and combine physiological, microbial, biotechnological and agronomic aspects. Conveying an in-depth understanding of the topic will spark the development of new cultivars and strains to induce NUE, coupled with best management practices that will immensely benefit agricultural systems, safeguarding their soil, water, and air quality. Written by recognized experts in the field, the book is intended to provide students, scientists and policymakers with essential insights into holistic approaches to NUE, as well as an overview of some successful case studies. In the present understanding of agriculture, NUE represents a question of process optimization in response to the increasing fragility of our natural resources base and threats to food grain security across the globe. Further improving nutrient use efficiency is a prerequisite to reducing production costs, expanding crop acreage into non-competitive marginal lands with low nutrient resources, and preventing environmental contamination. The nutrients most commonly limiting plant growth are N, P, K, S and micronutrients like Fe, Zn, B and Mo. NUE depends on the ability to efficiently take up the nutrient from the soil, but also on transport, storage, mobilization, usage within the plant and the environment. A number of approaches can help us to understand NUE as a whole. One involves adopting best crop management practices that take into account root-induced rhizosphere processes, which play a pivotal role in controlling nutrient dynamics in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. New technologies, from basic tools like leaf color charts to sophisticated sensor-based systems and laser land leveling, can reduce the dependency on laboratory assistance and manual labor. Another approach concerns the development of crop plants through genetic manipulations that allow them to take up and assimilate nutrients more efficiently, as well as identifying processes of plant responses to nutrient deficiency stress and exploring natural genetic variation. Though only recently introduced, the ability of microbial inoculants to induce NUE is gaining in importance, as the loss, immobilization, release and availability of nutrients are mediated by soil microbial processes.
Nutrient Use Efficiency in Plants: Concepts and Approaches is the ninth volume in the Plant Ecophysiology series. It presents a broad overview of topics related to improvement of nutrient use efficiency of crops. Nutrient use efficiency (NUE) is a measure of how well plants use the available mineral nutrients. It can be defined as yield (biomass) per unit input (fertilizer, nutrient content). NUE is a complex trait: it depends on the ability to take up the nutrients from the soil, but also on transport, storage, mobilization, usage within the plant, and even on the environment. NUE is of particular interest as a major target for crop improvement. Improvement of NUE is an essential pre-requisite for expansion of crop production into marginal lands with low nutrient availability but also a way to reduce use of inorganic fertilizer.
This book mainly presents the current state of knowledge on the use of of Silicon (Si) in agriculture, including plants, soils and fertilizers. At the same time, it discusses the future interdisciplinary research that will be needed to further our knowledge and potential applications of Si in agriculture and in the environmental sciences in general. As the second most abundant element both on the surface of the Earth’s crust and in soils, Si is an agronomically essential or quasi-essential element for improving the yield and quality of crops. Addressing the use of Si in agriculture in both theory and practice, the book is primarily intended for graduate students and researchers in various fields of the agricultural, biological, and environmental sciences, as well as for agronomic and fertilizer industry experts and advisors. Dr. Yongchao Liang is a full professor at the College of Environmental and Resource Sciences of the Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Dr. Miroslav Nikolic is a research professor at the Institute for Multidisciplinary Research of the University of Belgrade, Serbia. Dr. Richard Bélanger is a full professor at the Department of Plant Pathology of the Laval University, Canada and holder of a Canada Research Chair in plant protection. Dr. Haijun Gong is a full professor at College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, China. Dr. Alin Song is an associate professor at Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.
Efforts to increase efficient nutrient use by crops are of growing importance as the global demand for food, fibre and fuel increases and competition for resources intensifies. The Molecular and Physiological Basis of Nutrient Use Efficiency in Crops provides both a timely summary of the latest advances in the field as well as anticipating directions for future research. The Molecular and Physiological Basis of Nutrient Use Efficiency in Crops bridges the gap between agronomic practice and molecular biology by linking underpinning molecular mechanisms to the physiological and agronomic aspects of crop yield. These chapters provide an understanding of molecular and physiological mechanisms that will allow researchers to continue to target and improve complex traits for crop improvement. Written by leading international researchers, The Molecular and Physiological Basis of Nutrient Use Efficiency in Crops will be an essential resource for the crop science community for years to come. Special Features: coalesces current knowledge in the areas of efficient acquisition and utilization of nutrients by crop plants with emphasis on modern developments addresses future directions in crop nutrition in the light of changing climate patterns including temperature and water availability bridges the gap between traditional agronomy and molecular biology with focus on underpinning molecular mechanisms and their effects on crop yield includes contributions from a leading team of global experts in both research and practical settings
Aquaculture is the science and technology of balanced support from the biological and engi producing aquatic plants and animals. It is not neering sciences. However, commercial aqua new, but has been practiced in certain Eastern culture has become so complex that, in order to cultures for over 2,000 years. However, the role be successful, one must also draw upon the ex of aquaculture in helping to meet the world's pertise of biologists, engineers, chemists, econ food shortages has become more recently ap omists, food technologists, marketing special parent. ists, lawyers, and others. The multidisciplinary The oceans of the world were once consid approach to aquaculture production became ap ered sources of an unlimited food supply. Bio parent during the early 1990s. It is believed that logical studies indicate that the maximum sus this trend will continue as aquaculture produc tainable yield of marine species through the tion becomes more and more intensive in order for the producer to squeeze as much product as harvest of wild stock is 100 million MT (metric tons) per year. Studies also indicate that we are possible out of a given parcel of land. rapidly approaching the maximum sustainable Although many aquaculture books exist, few yield of the world's oceans and major freshwa explore the engineering aspects of aquaculture ter bodies. Per capita consumption of fishery production.
Put Theory into Practice Scarcity of natural resources, higher costs, higher demand, and concerns about environmental pollution — under these circumstances, improving food supply worldwide with adequate quantity and quality is fundamental. Based on the author’s more than forty years of experience, The Use of Nutrients in Crop Plants builds a bridge between theoretical aspects of mineral nutrition and practical applicability of basic principles of fertilization and use efficiency of essential plant nutrients. Provides Authoritative and Practical Information The book explores how to maximize essential nutrients uptake and use efficiency by food crops and how to improve productivity without degrading the environment. It covers nutrients and their cycle in soil-plant systems, functions, and deficiency symptoms. The author includes management strategies that can lead to a reduction in the cost of crop production and environmental degradation. He emphasizes field conditions, crop production, and soil chemistry. Comprehensive coverage of essential nutrients and experimental results are accompanied by tables and figures of updated experimental data that make practical information easily accessible. A Valuable Tool for Improving Crop Yield Agricultural science is very dynamic in nature and fertilizer practices change with time due to the release of new cultivars and changing production practices in sustainable crop production systems. The Use of Nutrients in Crop Plants provides in-depth scientific information that is applicable through many methods of crop production. It is a valuable tool for improving crop yields at lower cost and less stress on the environment.
The world population is projected to reach nine billion by 2050, and in the coming years, global food demand is expected to increase by 50% or more. Higher crop productivity gains in the future will have to be achieved in developing countries through better natural resources management and crop improvement. After nitrogen, phosphorus (P) has more widespread influence on both natural and agricultural ecosystems than any other essential plant element. It has been estimated that 5.7 billion hectares of land worldwide contain insufficient amounts of available P for sustainable crop production, and P deficiency in crop plants is a widespread problem in various parts of the world. However, it has been estimated that worldwide minable P could last less than 40 years. For sustaining future food supplies, it is vital to enhance plant P use efficiency. To bring the latest knowledge and research advances in efficient management of P for economically viable and environmentally beneficial crop production in sustainable agriculture, Phosphorus Management in Crop Production contains chapters covering functions and diagnostic techniques for P requirements in crop plants, P use efficiency and interactions with other nutrients in crop plants, management of P for optimal crop production and environmental quality, and basic principles and methodology regarding P nutrition in crop plants. The majority of research data included are derived from many years of field, greenhouse, and lab work, hence the information is practical in nature and will have a significant impact on efficient management of P-fertilizers to enhance P use efficiency, improve crop production, promote sustainable agriculture, and reduce P losses through eluviations, leaching, and erosion to minimize environmental degradation. A comprehensive book that combines practical and applied information, Phosphorus Management in Crop Production is an excellent reference for students, professors, agricultural research scientists, food scientists, agricultural extension specialists, private consultants, fertilizer companies, and government agencies that deal with agricultural and environmental issues.

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