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The discipline of neurology emerged in the second half of the 19th Century. With it, chairs and departments of neurology, training programs, specialized journals, and new societies came into being. Trying to understand disorders of the nervous system, however, has roots that can be traced back into antiquity, and the new discipline did not develop in similar ways throughout the world. Further, whereas some neurological disorders seemed relatively easy to understand even before there was a neurological examination, others posed challenges, and many still remain shrouded in mystery. The authors of the present volume examine the fascinating prehistory of neurology, its emergence with as an independent discipline, and how it developed throughout the world. They also look at a number of neurological disorders, some sensory, others motor, and still others affecting higher cognitive functions, to illustrate how our understanding of neurological disorders has changed over time. With 55 chapters, many covering material that has received little or no coverage in other books, this history of neurology is unique in its breadth and depth. Filling a great void, its pages are laced with fascinating medical facts, information about people, and cultural connections. This volume is sure to appeal to neurologists, historians of science and medicine, and inquisitive people from other fields --- readers who wish to understand the roots of a discipline and the challenges faced by its pioneers.