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Properties of nanosilicon in the form of nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotubes, and as porous material are of great interest. They can be used in finding suitable components for future miniature devices, and for the more exciting possibilities of novel optoelectronic applications due to bright luminescence from porous silicon, nanoparticles and nanowires. New findings from research into metal encapsulated clusters, silicon fullerenes and nanotubes have opened up a new paradigm in nanosilicon research and this could lead to large scale production of nanoparticles with control on size and shape as well as novel quasi one-dimensional structures. There are possibilities of using silicon as an optical material and in the development of a silicon laser. In this book leading experts cover state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical advances in the different forms of nanosilicon. Furthermore, applications of nanosilicon to single electron transistors, as photonic material, chemical and biological sensors at molecular scale, and silicon nanowire devices are also discussed. Self-assemblies of silicon nanoforms are important for applications. These developments are also related to cage structures of silicon in clathrates. With an interesting focus on the bottlenecks in the advancement of silicon based technology, this book provides a much-needed overview of the current state of understanding of nanosilicon research. * Latest developments in nanoparticles, nanowires and nanotubes of silicon * Focus on nanosilicon - a very timely subject attracting large interest * Novel chapters on metal encapsulated silicon clusters and nanotubes
Nanosilicon: Properties, Synthesis, Applications, Methods of Analysis and Control examines the latest developments on the physics and chemistry of nanosilicon. The book focuses on methods for producing nanosilicon, its electronic and optical properties, research methods to characterize its spectral and structural properties, and its possible applications. The first part of the book covers the basic properties of semiconductors, including causes of the size dependence of the properties, structural and electronic properties, and physical characteristics of the various forms of silicon. It presents theoretical and experimental research results as well as examples of porous silicon and quantum dots. The second part discusses the synthesis of nanosilicon, modification of the surface of nanoparticles, and properties of the resulting particles. The authors give special attention to the photoluminescence of silicon nanoparticles. The third part describes methods used for studying and controlling the structure and properties of nanocrystalline silicon. These methods include standard ones, such as electron microscopy, spectroscopy, and diffraction, as well as novel techniques, such as femtosecond spectroscopy, ultrafast electron nanocrystallography, and dynamic transmission electron microscopy. The fourth part details some of the practical applications of nanocrystalline silicon, including the use of nanoparticles as additives–absorbers of UV radiation in sunscreens. Incorporating much of the authors’ own extensive research results, this book provides a systematic account of the scientific problems of nanosilicon and its potential practical applications. It will help readers understand current and emerging applications and research methods of this unique material.
In this thesis basic methods for the fabrication and characterisation of several nano-silicon containing systems are presented. Due to their morphology, these systems are highly reactive. Silicon wafers were used to prepare layers of porous silicon via electrochemically etching and micro- and nano- sized silicon powders were chemically etched in order to yield silicon nanoparticles. Dependent on the fabrication, particle size of the nanocrystals and porosity of the assemblies can be tailored over a wide range: mean particle sizes can be between 3 to 20 nm and porosities can be varied from 10 to 90 %. A huge surface area of up to 500m2/g which is in addition, due to the fabrication process, hydrogen terminated, entail the outstanding chemical and photo-chemical properties of nanocrystalline silicon. Both, chemical and photo-chemical properties of silicon nanocrystal structures are investigated. The emphasis lies on optical spectroscopy. The indirect band gap structure of silicon in combination with quantum confinement effects are the origin of the interesting luminescence properties of nano-silicon. The energy transfer process from photo-excited excitons confined in silicon nanocrystals to molecules present in the surrounding ambient, like oxygen or a variety of organic substances, has been studied. Measurements demonstrated that long-living excitons very efficiently transfer their energy to surrounding molecules. The low probability of creating excitons which can persist for a long time, from [mu]s to ms, by a photon and structural properties of porous silicon, or rather its reactive surface, however, seem to be the reason for a low total quantum yield of sensitised excited singlet state oxygen.
Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Frontiers in Molecular-Scale Science and Technology of Fullerence, Nanotube, Nanosilicon, Biopolymer (DNA, Protein) Multifunctional Nanosystems, Kyiv, Ukraine, 9-12 September 2001
This book maps out the frontiers of optical technology in two major subdisciplines: optical materials and optical devices. The optical materials and material architectures covered include nanostructured silicon, chiral sculptured thin films, magnetic photonic crystals, and switchable materials for efficient lighting and decorative optics. The optical devices addressed include silicon waveguides for integrated circuitry, high-speed electro-optic modulators, laser diodes coupled with fibre-tip lenses, and optical sensors. Reading the ten chapters, either altogether or piecemeal, the reader will receive a virtually up-to-date review of the state of the art.
Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Illmenau, Germany from 12 to 16 July 2003
This unique collection of knowledge represents a comprehensive treatment of the fundamental and practical consequences of size reduction in silicon crystals. This clearly structured reference introduces readers to the optical, electrical and thermal properties of silicon nanocrystals that arise from their greatly reduced dimensions. It covers their synthesis and characterization from both chemical and physical viewpoints, including ion implantation, colloidal synthesis and vapor deposition methods. A major part of the text is devoted to applications in microelectronics as well as photonics and nanobiotechnology, making this of great interest to the high-tech industry.

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