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Invasion Biology provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the science of biological invasions while also offering new insights and perspectives relating to the processes of introduction, establishment, and spread. The book connects science with application by describing the health, economic, and ecological impacts of invasive species as well as the variety of management strategies developed to mitigate harmful impacts.The author critically evaluates the approaches, findings, and controversies that have characterized invasion biology in recent years, and suggests a variety of future research directions. Carefully balanced to avoid distincttaxonomic, ecosystem, and geographic (both investigator and species) biases, the book addresses a wide range of invasive species (including protists, invertebrates, vertebrates, fungi, and plants) which have been studied in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments throughout the world by investigators equally diverse in their origins.
In this edited volume, global experts in ecology and evolutionary biology explore how theories in ecology elucidate the processes of invasion, while also examining how specific invasions inform ecological theory. This reciprocal benefit is highlighted in a number of scales of organization: population, community and biogeographic. The text describes example invaders in all major groups of organisms and from a number of regions around the globe.
A critical appraisal of ecosystem theory using case studies of plant and animal invasions in Australasia.
Invasion Biology, the study of biota redistributed via human agency, has traditionally traced its founding to Charles Elton's 1958 book The Ecology of invasions by Animals and Plants. But there were many substantial, scientific pre-Eltonian accounts and analyses of redistributed biota dating back at least to the mid-1700s; and non-Eltonian treatments appeared into the late 1950s. Elton began writing on the topic by 1925. From 1931 to 1948 he developed his ideas on conservation in association with Aldo Leopold. Their "competitive collaboration" is explored and documented, showing that each supported and contextualized the other. Elton was, in part, inspired to write The Ecology of invasions by Animals and Plants in dissatisfied response to an earlier effort by American Marston Bates. The two authors, and these works, are compared and contrasted. The Ecology of Invasions by Animals is analyzed in detail, showing how Elton framed his arguments in terms of warfare and cold-war era nuclear alarmism, making a plea for action without providing a strong theoretical basis for preventing the redistribution of biota. The republication of Elton's book in 2000 incited a new round of interpretation, but even while its proponents hailed the book as invasion biology's 'bible,' they prepared to replace it with more modern texts. The narrative shows how ideas about the origins of life on earth, the role of humans in nature, a sense of place and biogeographical belonging, and concerns about the unintended consequences of human agency motivated scientists to attempt to impute order to, and impose it upon, the historically contingent distribution of biota.
Apple snails (Ampullariidae) are freshwater, operculate snails globally distributed in humid tropical and subtropical habitats. Nine genera are recognized: Afropomus, Saulea and Lanistes are African; Pila is African and Asian; Asolene, Felipponea, Marisa and Pomella are South American; Pomacea ranges from Argentina to the southeastern USA. Ampullariid taxonomy and evolutionary relationships have historically been poorly understood, especially regarding Pomacea , which has implications for research on many aspects of ampullariid evolutionary biology. In this dissertation I present the most comprehensive assessment of ampullariid phylogenetic systematics to date and explore some central themes in evolutionary biology that are pertinent to apple snails and their evolution in the Neotropics. In reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships of the ampullariids I used two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. Analyses of these genes independently and in combination support the reciprocal monophyly of the New and Old World taxa and confirm the need for a taxonomic revision of the New World genera. The phylogeny also reveals a trend of increasingly amphibious habits among some of the more derived ampullariids. Such changes in habits appear to have evolved in parallel with increases in siphon length and expansion of the lung, efficacy of atmospheric oxygen uptake, diversification and enlargement of the copulatory apparatus, desiccation resistance, oviposition behavior and egg morphology. All these changes, in concert with the changing freshwater systems of the Neotropics during the last 90 myr, have probably played a significant role in the evolution of ampullariids. Understanding such processes combined with the well resolved phylogeny have allowed me to better characterize apple snail invasiveness and accurately identify those species introduced outside their native ranges. Finally, since the Ampullariidae are probably the sister group to all Caenogastropoda, this phylogeny establishes the basis for future studies that will provide insights into gastropod evolution in general.
Humans have moved organisms around the world for centuries but it is only relatively recently that invasion ecology has grown into a mainstream research field. This book examines both the spread and impact dynamics of invasive species, placing the science of invasion biology on a new, more rigorous, theoretical footing, and proposing a concept of adaptive networks as the foundation for future research. Biological invasions are considered not as simple actions of invaders and reactions of invaded ecosystems, but as co-evolving complex adaptive systems with emergent features of network complexity and invasibility. Invasion Dynamics focuses on the ecology of invasive species and their impacts in recipient social-ecological systems. It discusses not only key advances and challenges within the traditional domain of invasion ecology, but introduces approaches, concepts, and insights from many other disciplines such as complexity science, systems science, and ecology more broadly. It will be of great value to invasion biologists analyzing spread and/or impact dynamics as well as other ecologists interested in spread processes or habitat management.
Seasonal quantitative sampling in two common coastal habitats was used to investigate habitat use of different life-stages. Sandy areas were found to be highly important for the early life stages of L. sceleratus. In contrast, Posidonia oceanica habitats were mainly preferred by larger (> 29 cm) reproductive adults with a maximum recorded size of 64 cm. Lagocephalus sceleratus was fond to be an invertebrate and fish feeder while size classification revealed a tendency for an ontogenetic diet shift with increased size to a molluscivore feeding. The ontogenetic diet shift is most probably attributed to a shift in habitat use with increasing size. During early life stages L. sceleratus inhabited sandy bottoms where it fed on various invertebrates, including the genus Nassarius and Dentaliidae. The predominant molluscan species found in the diet of larger (> 20 cm) L. sceleratus individuals was Sepia officinalis while predation of Octopus vulgaris was less successful. Sepia officinalis and O. vulgaris are of economic interest in the area and the impact of L. sceleratus on local stocks of these species is discussed. Societal impacts were also evident in the area due to increased public attention concerning the lethal effects of the toxic L. sceleratus, if consumed. Seasonal variations in the condition of L. sceleratus did not show any significance and the high conditional values together with information on high numbers caught during samplings, signifies its ability to become an important member of the coastal fish community. Combined ecological, economical and social effects clearly classify L. sceleratus a pest in the area