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Introductory Analysis addresses the needs of students taking a course in analysis after completing a semester or two of calculus, and offers an alternative to texts that assume that math majors are their only audience. By using a conversational style that does not compromise mathematical precision, the author explains the material in terms that help the reader gain a firmer grasp of calculus concepts. * Written in an engaging, conversational tone and readable style while softening the rigor and theory * Takes a realistic approach to the necessary and accessible level of abstraction for the secondary education students * A thorough concentration of basic topics of calculus * Features a student-friendly introduction to delta-epsilon arguments * Includes a limited use of abstract generalizations for easy use * Covers natural logarithms and exponential functions * Provides the computational techniques often encountered in basic calculus
Modelling with the Ito integral or stochastic differential equations has become increasingly important in various applied fields, including physics, biology, chemistry and finance. However, stochastic calculus is based on a deep mathematical theory. This book is suitable for the reader without a deep mathematical background. It gives an elementary introduction to that area of probability theory, without burdening the reader with a great deal of measure theory. Applications are taken from stochastic finance. In particular, the Black -- Scholes option pricing formula is derived. The book can serve as a text for a course on stochastic calculus for non-mathematicians or as elementary reading material for anyone who wants to learn about Ito calculus and/or stochastic finance.
Distribution theory, a relatively recent mathematical approach to classical Fourier analysis, not only opened up new areas of research but also helped promote the development of such mathematical disciplines as ordinary and partial differential equations, operational calculus, transformation theory, and functional analysis. This text was one of the first to give a clear explanation of distribution theory; it combines the theory effectively with extensive practical applications to science and engineering problems. Based on a graduate course given at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, this book has two objectives: to provide a comparatively elementary introduction to distribution theory and to describe the generalized Fourier and Laplace transformations and their applications to integrodifferential equations, difference equations, and passive systems. After an introductory chapter defining distributions and the operations that apply to them, Chapter 2 considers the calculus of distributions, especially limits, differentiation, integrations, and the interchange of limiting processes. Some deeper properties of distributions, such as their local character as derivatives of continuous functions, are given in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 introduces the distributions of slow growth, which arise naturally in the generalization of the Fourier transformation. Chapters 5 and 6 cover the convolution process and its use in representing differential and difference equations. The distributional Fourier and Laplace transformations are developed in Chapters 7 and 8, and the latter transformation is applied in Chapter 9 to obtain an operational calculus for the solution of differential and difference equations of the initial-condition type. Some of the previous theory is applied in Chapter 10 to a discussion of the fundamental properties of certain physical systems, while Chapter 11 ends the book with a consideration of periodic distributions. Suitable for a graduate course for engineering and science students or for a senior-level undergraduate course for mathematics majors, this book presumes a knowledge of advanced calculus and the standard theorems on the interchange of limit processes. A broad spectrum of problems has been included to satisfy the diverse needs of various types of students.
This is a book about mathematics and mathematical thinking. It is intended for the serious learner who is interested in studying some deductive strategies in the context of a variety of elementary mathematical situations. No background beyond single-variable calculus is presumed.
Part 1 begins with an overview of properties of the real numbers and starts to introduce the notions of set theory. The absolute value and in particular inequalities are considered in great detail before functions and their basic properties are handled. From this the authors move to differential and integral calculus. Many examples are discussed. Proofs not depending on a deeper understanding of the completeness of the real numbers are provided. As a typical calculus module, this part is thought as an interface from school to university analysis. Part 2 returns to the structure of the real numbers, most of all to the problem of their completeness which is discussed in great depth. Once the completeness of the real line is settled the authors revisit the main results of Part 1 and provide complete proofs. Moreover they develop differential and integral calculus on a rigorous basis much further by discussing uniform convergence and the interchanging of limits, infinite series (including Taylor series) and infinite products, improper integrals and the gamma function. In addition they discussed in more detail as usual monotone and convex functions. Finally, the authors supply a number of Appendices, among them Appendices on basic mathematical logic, more on set theory, the Peano axioms and mathematical induction, and on further discussions of the completeness of the real numbers. Remarkably, Volume I contains ca. 360 problems with complete, detailed solutions.

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