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With a history that reaches back some 90 years, the Hume-Rothery rules were developed to provide guiding principles in the search for new alloys. Ultimately, the rules bridged metallurgy, crystallography, and physics in a way that led to the emergence of a physics of the solid state in 1930s, although the physical implications of the rules were never fully resolved. Even today, despite a revived interest brought about by the 1984 discovery of quasicrystals, much about the rules remains an enigma. Now almost a century after the rules were put forward, Hume-Rothery Rules for Structurally Complex Alloy Phases provides researchers with an insightful and applicable interpretation of the Hume-Rothery electron concentration rule. Invoking first-principle band calculations, the book emphasizes the stability of structurally complex metallic alloys (CMAs).Written by Uichiro Mizutani, long considered the most knowledgeable expert on both the history and science of Hume-Rothery, this seminal work — Offers a unified interpretation of phase stabilization mechanism of CMAs in different classes Explains how to determine the effective valency of transition metal elements Details establishment of d-states-mediated-FsBz interactions in strongly orbital-hybridizing systems Covers the contrast between e/a and VEC, two notions of electron concentration parameters and includes a way to differentiate between them in designing new alloys Explores strengths and shortcomings for the theory on alloy phase stability Discusses the latest take on electron concentration for gamma-brass This work summarizes the ongoing history of Hume-Rothery and reflects the theoretical studies that Professor Mizutani embarked upon to gain deeper understanding of the basic physics behind stabilizing effects related to electron concentration. It describes how metallic and covalent bonding styles can be harmonized to stabilize a given phase in relation to electron concentration and electrochemical effect as defined by the rules. Beyond theory, the approaches presented in these pages will prove of great value to researchers developing new functional metals and alloys.
This book, the third in a series of four publications issued annually as a deliverable of the research school established within the European Network of Excellence CMA (for Complex Metallic Alloys), is written by reputed experts in the fields of surface physics and chemistry, metallurgy and process engineering. It combines expertise found inside as well as outside the network. The CMA network focuses on the huge group of largely unknown multinary alloys and compounds formed with crystal structures based on giant unit cells containing clusters, with many tens or up to thousands of atoms per unit cell. In these phases, for many phenomena, the physical length scales are substantially smaller than the unit-cell dimension. Hence, these materials offer unique combinations of properties which are mutually excluded in conventional materials: metallic electric conductivity combined with low thermal conductivity, combination of good light absorption with high-temperature stability, combination of high metallic hardness with reduced wetting by liquids, electrical and thermal resistance tuneable by composition variation, excellent resistance to corrosion, reduced cold-welding and adhesion, enhanced hydrogen storage capacity and light absorption. This book series will concentrate on the: development of fundamental knowledge with the aim of understanding materials phenomena, technologies associated with the production, transformation and processing of knowledge-based multifunctional materials, surface engineering, support for new materials development and new knowledge-based higher performance materials for macro-scale applications.
Covering fundamental research as well as real-world applications, this first book on CMAs at an introductory level treats everything from atomistic details to surface processing. Comprehensive, self-contained chapters provide readers with the latest knowledge on the most salient features of the topic, selected in terms of their relevance to potential technological applications. Edited by one of the most distinguished authorities on quasicrystals and this most important of their subclasses, the contributions elucidate aspects of CMAs from a particular viewpoint: physical and chemical characteristics in the sub-nanometer regime, mesoscale phenomena, preparation and processing of thin films, and large-scale engineering properties. The whole is rounded off by a look at the commercial potential of CMA-based applications. For PhD students and lecturers alike.
This book is published in honor of the 2005 Hume-Rothery Award Recipient, Uichiro Mizutani. It emphasizes both theoretical and experimental aspects of electronic, structural, and thermodynamic properties of complex alloy phases. Leading experts provide an assessment of our current understanding of the structural properties of complex materials, including quasicrystalline and amorphous alloys. Special emphasis is placed on our understanding of why nature is able to stabilize complex atomic arrangements and on recent results related to structurally complex alloy phases. These topics, in the spirit of the work carried out by U. Mizutani, constitute the main theme of the book.
This book provides a systematic and comprehensive description of high-entropy alloys (HEAs). The authors summarize key properties of HEAs from the perspective of both fundamental understanding and applications, which are supported by in-depth analyses. The book also contains computational modeling in tackling HEAs, which help elucidate the formation mechanisms and properties of HEAs from various length and time scales.
Designed for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, Introductory Nanoscience asks key questions about the quantitative concepts that underlie this new field. How are the optical and electrical properties of nanomaterials dependent upon size, shape, and morphology? How do we construct nanometer-sized objects? Using solved examples throughout the chapters, this textbook shows to what extent we may predict the behavior and functionality of nanomaterials by understanding how their properties change with scale. Fundamental concepts are reinforced through end-of-chapter problems and further reading. Students will appreciate complete derivations of relevant equations, simplified assumptions for practical calculations, listed references, and a historical overview about the development of colloidal quantum dots.
Beginning with a concise review of the physics and chemistry of polymers and their structure and morphology, this book goes on to describe and explain the common methods of characterizing polymers, including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, among others. Also covered are the characterization and modification of such surface properties as adhesion, wetting, tribology, and surface thermodynamics.

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