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Human error is involved in more than 90 percent of traffic accidents, and of those accidents, most are associated with visual distractions, or looking-but-failing-to-see errors. Human Factors of Visual and Cognitive Performance in Driving gathers knowledge from a human factors psychology standpoint and provides deeper insight into traffic -user behavior and the ways drivers acquire information from the road. Emphasizes Drivers as Visual Information Processors Because driving is an eyes-wide-open task, drivers are exposed to a multitude of visual stimuli along their journey. This information must be correctly processed in order to make the right decisions and perform precise safety maneuvers. With contributions from more than 20 leading experts, this detailed resource discusses road and markings design, new technologies, signage, distraction, safety, situation awareness, workload, driving experience, fatigue, and driving interventions with the goal of improving driving behavior and preventing accidents. Addresses These Key Areas: Visual attention and in-vehicle technologies Interventions to reduce road trauma Avoiding collisions and the failures involved in that endeavor Using jargon-free language that is easily understood, this book compresses research from the past few decades into one accessible resource. It clearly and cohesively provides ergonomics and human factor engineers, industrial designers, and highway and roadway engineers with an overarching understanding of the incessant visual demands drivers face.
This volume is concerned with the human factors, ergonomics, and safety issues related to the design of products, processes, and systems, as well as operation and management of business enterprises in both manufacturing and service sectors of contemporary industry. The book is organized into ten sections that focus on the following subject matters: I: Enterprise Management II: Human Factors in Manufacturing III: Processes and Services IV: Design of Work Systems V. Working Environment VI. Product and System Safety VII. Safety Design Issues VIII. Safety Management IX. Hazard Communication X. Occupational Risk Prevention This book will be of special value to researchers and practitioners involved in the design of products, processes, systems, and services, which are marketed and utilized by a variety of organizations around the world. Seven other titles in the Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics Series are: Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare Advances in Applied Digital Human Modeling Advances in Cross-Cultural Decision Making Advances in Cognitive Ergonomics Advances in Occupational, Social and Organizational Ergonomics Advances in Ergonomics Modeling & Usability Evaluation Advances in Neuroergonomics and Human Factors of Special Populations
A Practical Resource for Understanding, Preventing, and Managing Driver Distraction It is estimated that up to 23 percent of crashes and near-crashes are caused by driver distraction, and these figures will likely increase as more and more distractions, both inside and outside the vehicle, compete for driver attention. Driver Distraction: Theory, Effects, and Mitigation gives a comprehensive overview of this issue, outlining the underlying theory of distraction, its effects on driving performance and safety, strategies for mitigating its effects, and directions for future research. It also brings together the wide array of literature on the topic into one, all-inclusive volume. Includes Recommendations for Managing Distractions in the Technological Age This comprehensive volume reviews the full range of distracting activities that occur while driving, and available ergonomic methods, guidelines, and checklists for the measurement and mitigation of driver distraction. It also recommends ways to manage distraction through enhanced data collection and analysis, driver education and training, driver licensing, legislation and enforcement, vehicle design, road design, company policies, and future research. Beneficial for a broad audience, including: Vehicle manufacturers Road transport authorities and safety agencies Traffic and transport engineers Automotive equipment manufacturers and suppliers Company safety managers Standards organizations Transport safety research agencies This work comes at a critical time when road safety authorities are just beginning to recognize the importance of driver distraction as a road safety issue. With balanced and practical guidance, it aims to prevent driver distraction from escalating into an even more significant problem.
The chapters in the book come from an international group of authors with diverse backgrounds including ergonomics, psychology, architecture, computer science, engineering, and sociology. Specific topics include biometric systems development, military command and control, cellular phone interface design, methodologies for workplace design, medical device design, cockpit display and decision tool design for pilots, driver visual and cognitive processes, and performance of inspection tasks in manufacturing operations; and extend to human-automation integration in future aviation systems, novel 3-D display technologies for enhancing information analysis, training methods for mental models, approaches to activity analysis, new research-oriented frameworks and paradigms in training, and the use of virtual reality for skill development and assessment. The book is divided into sections covering: I. Cultural Differences in Computing Systems Design II. Decision Making and Decision Support III. Desktop/Mobile Interface Design IV. Ergonomics in Design V. Ergonomics in Product Design VI. Human Factors in Aviation Systems VII. Human Factors in Driving VIII. Human Factors in Manufacturing IX. Human Factors in NextGen Operations X. Information Visualization for Situation Awareness XI. Mental Models XII. Perceptuo-Motor Skills & Psychophysical Assessment XIII. Task Analysis XIV. Training Technology XV. Virtual Reality for Behavior Assessment XVI. Virtual Reality for Psychomotor Training The implications of all this work include design recommendations for complex systems and commercial products, new procedures for operator training and self-regulation as well as methods for accessibility to systems, and specification of ergonomic interventions at the user. It is expected that this book will be of special value to practitioners involved in design process development, design and prototyping of systems, products and services, as well as training process design for a broad range of applications and markets in various countries. Seven other titles in the Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics Series are: Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare Advances in Applied Digital Human Modeling Advances in Cross-Cultural Decision Making Advances in Occupational, Social and Organizational Ergonomics Advances in Human Factors, Ergonomics and Safety in Manufacturing and Service Industries Advances in Ergonomics Modeling & Usability Evaluation Advances in Neuroergonomics and Human Factors of Special Populations
Hearing and understanding sound — auditory processing — greatly enriches everyday life and enhances our ability to perform many tasks essential to survival. The complex soundscape in which we live influences where we direct our attention, how we communicate with each other, and how we interact with technological systems. Auditory Cognition and Human Performance: Research and Applications explores how we accomplish this no less than remarkable task. It provides an overview of key auditory sensation and perception topics and mental workload theory, providing those who may be unfamiliar with these topics a foundation on which to understand applied auditory cognition. The book examines the relationship between auditory cognition and human performance, highlighting the nature of situations in which the mental resource requirements of auditory processing may be compromised. It focuses on the importance of increasing our understanding of auditory cognition and its relationship to human performance. Written in an accessible and engaging style, this book balances coverage of basic and applied research, supplies copious examples to explain key concepts, and includes extensive references for further reading and exploration. Bringing together coverage of sensory and cognitive processes, the author discusses how their interaction can be used to improve display design. Despite the relative neglect that auditory processing has received in earlier years, the auditory modality remains a potent source of information with several advantageous and unique characteristics. Over the past two decades there has been a growing base of empirical research on auditory cognition and its role in human performance at work and in everyday life. This book points out many of the questions that have yet to be resolved and provides the understanding needed to design more effective auditory displays, make better alerts and warnings, and improve communications and a wide variety of other things.
The availability of electric lighting has changed the lives of people the world over, yet as a major user of electricity it has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. This scrutiny has focused largely on the environmental consequences, with little consideration of the benefits of lighting. Human Factors in Lighting, Third Edition restores some balance to the discussion by examining the ways in which people interact with lighting. These interactions influence the ability to perform visual tasks; the perception of people, objects, and spaces; human comfort and behavior; as well as human health and safety. It is only by understanding how to use light to achieve these ends that lighting can be provided effectively and efficiently to the benefit of all. See What’s New in the Third Edition: New chapters on the non-image-forming system, lighting for pedestrians, light pollution, and lighting and electricity use Revision of all other chapters to update them to take into account the advances that have been made in our understanding of the effects of light on people over the last decade Integration of the combined effects of light via the visual and non-image-forming systems on performance and perception The book covers both the visual and the non-visual effects of light on people as well as the benefits of lighting and the costs it imposes on the environment. It details the consequences of exposure to lighting or lighting technology and the role of exposure to light on such basic functions of the body as circadian rhythms. The author combines information from many different sources and integrates them into a coherent overview of lighting practice that can be used to develop better lighting solutions at a lower environmental cost.

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