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Within Western political philosophy, the rights of groups has often been neglected or addressed in only the narrowest fashion. Focusing solely on whether rights are exercised by individuals or groups misses what lies at the heart of ethnocultural conflict, leaving the crucial question unanswered: can the familiar system of common citizenship rights within liberal democracies sufficiently accommodate the legitimate interests of ethnic citizens? Specifically, how does membership in an ethnic group differ from other groups, such as professional, lifestyle, or advocacy groups? How important is ethnicity to personal identity and self-respect, and does accommodating these interests require more than standard citizenship rights? Crucially, what forms of ethnocultural accommodations are consistent with democratic equality, individual freedom, and political stability? Invoking numerous cases studies and addressing the issue of ethnicity from a range of perspectives, Ethnicity and Group Rights seeks to answer these questions.
7. The rights of immigrants: Joseph H. Carens
The idea of unitary states has been greatly eroded by the rise of group consciousness in the twentieth century. Consequently it has been argued that groups, as well as individuals, are subjects of 'rights'. The articles in this book illustrate the different kinds of groups which have been accorded rights, the various threats to which the doctrine of group rights has been a response, and the reservations which its protagonists have elicited. The authors include F. W. Maitland, G. D. H. Cole, Ernest Barker, Michael Oakeshott, F. A. Hayek, and contemporary political thinkers. An introduction sets the concern of these writers in historical context.
The role of education.
Through a collective biography of four scholars (Erich Kaufmann, Hans Kelsen, Hersch Lauterpacht and Hans J. Morgenthau) this book investigates how Jewish identity and intellectual ties to Judaic civilization in the German-speaking and legal context influenced international law. By using biblical constitutive metaphors, it argues that Jewish German lawyers inherited, "inter alia," a particular Jewish legal approach that framed their understanding of the law as a means to reach God. The overarching argument is that because of their Jewish heritage, Jewish scholars inherited the endorsement of earthly particularism for the sake of universalism and the other way around: for the sake of universalism, humanity s differences need to be solved through the law.
Liberal theories have long insisted that cultural diversity in democratic societies can be accommodated through classical liberal tools, in particular through individual rights, and they have often rejected the claims of cultural minorities for group rights as illiberal. Group Rights as Human Rights argues that such a rejection is misguided. Based on a thorough analysis of the concept of group rights, it proposes to overcome the dominant dichotomy between "individual" human rights and "collective" group rights by recognizing that group rights also serve individual interests. It also challenges the claim that group rights, so understood, conflict with the liberal principle of neutrality; on the contrary, these rights help realize the neutrality ideal as they counter cultural biases that exist in Western states. Group rights deserve to be classified as human rights because they respond to fundamental, and morally important, human interests. Reading the theories of Will Kymlicka and Charles Taylor as complementary rather than opposed, Group Rights as Human Rights sees group rights as anchored both in the value of cultural belonging for the development of individual autonomy and in each person’s need for a recognition of her identity. This double foundation has important consequences for the scope of group rights: it highlights their potential not only in dealing with national minorities but also with immigrant groups; and it allows to determine how far such rights should also benefit illiberal groups. Participation, not intervention, should here be the guiding principle if group rights are to realize the liberal promise.

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