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Since the end of the 20th century it has been increasingly realised that the use, or production, of many energetic materials leads to the release of substances which are harmful to both humans and the environment. To address this, the principles of green chemistry can be applied to the design of new products and their manufacturing processes, to create green energetic materials that are virtually free of environmental hazards and toxicity issues during manufacturing, storage, use and disposal. Active research is underway to develop new ingredients and formulations, green synthetic methods and non-polluting manufacturing processes. Green Energetic Materials provides a detailed account of the most recent research and developments in the field, including green pyrotechnics, explosives and propellants. From theoretical modelling and design of new materials, to the development of sustainable manufacturing processes, this book addresses materials already on the production line, as well as considering future developments in this evolving field. Topics covered include: Theoretical design of green energetic materials Development of green pyrotechnics Green primary and secondary explosives Oxidisers and binder materials for green propellants Environmentally sustainable manufacturing technologies for energetic materials Electrochemical methods for synthesis of energetic materials and waste remediation Green Energetic Materials is a valuable resource for academic, industrial and governmental researchers working on the development of energetic materials, for both military and civilian applications.
High-energy-high-density materials that offer increased stability, vulnerability, and are environmentally safe are being aggressively pursued to meet the requirements of the DoD Joint Visions and Future Force. It was proposed nearly two decades ago, polymeric nitrogen would exceed all of these requirements, with energy release nearly five times that any conventional energetic material in use today, In this paper, we describe an experiment in which a meta-stable polymeric form of nitrogen has been synthesized under high-pressure using sodium azide as the starting material. Recent characterization and ideas for future work are discussed.
This graduate-level textbook in a new revised edition treats the basic chemistry of high energy materials - primary and secondary explosives, propellants, rocket fuel and pyrotechnics - and provides a review of new research developments. Applications in both military and civil fields are discussed. The book also offers new insights into "green" chemistry requirements and strategies for military applications. This work should be of interest to advanced students in chemistry, materials science and engineering, as well as all those working in defense technology.
The development, processing, and lifecycle environmental impact analysis of energetic materials all pose various challenges and potential dangers. Because safety concerns severely limit study of these substances at most research facilities, engineers will especially appreciate a tool that strengthens understanding of the chemistry and physics involved and helps them better predict how these materials will behave when used in explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, and other applications. Integrate Cutting-Edge Research Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense Energetic Materials: Thermophysical Properties, Predictions, and Experimental Measurements covers a variety of advanced empirical modeling and simulation tools used to explore development, performance, sensitivity, and lifecycle issues of energetic materials. Focusing on a critical component of energetic materials research— prediction of thermophysical properties—this book elucidates innovative and experimental techniques being used to: Apply molecular and meso-scale modeling methodologies to measure reactivity, performance, and properties of new energetic materials Gain insight into shear initiation at the particulate level Better understand the fate, transport, and overall environmental impact of energetic materials Evaluate the performance of new materials and assess their reaction mechanisms Edited by two respected U.S. Army engineers, this book highlights cutting-edge research from leaders in the energetics community. Documenting the history, applications, and environmental behavior of energetic materials, this reference is a valuable resource for anyone working to optimize their massive potential—either now or in the future.
The study of energetic materials is emerging from one primarily directed toward practical interests to an advanced area of fundamental research, where state-of-the-art methods and theory are used side by side with modern synthetic methods. This timely book integrates the recent experimental, synthetic, and theoretical research of energetic materials. Editors George Olah and David Squire emphasize the importance of structure and mechanism in determining properties and performances. They also explore new spectrometric methods and synthetic approaches in this useful reference. Key Features * Discusses structural analysis by x-ray crystallography * Explains chemical dynamics by photofragmentation translational spectroscopy * Covers kinetic analysis by ultrafast absorption and emission spectroscopy * Details syntheses of polycyclic caged amines, fuel additives, and polynitro compounds * Examines computer-aided design of monopropellants * Includes contributions by two Nobel laureates and five members of the National Academy of Sciences
This up-to-date overview provides the latest information on the performance, sensitivity, strength and processability aspects of propellants and explosive formulations, with the nature of polymer binder/plasticizer as the variable factor. Apart from applications, this monograph explores the principles behind energetic polymers, while discussing the synthetic routes and energetic characteristics of individual family of energetic polymers. Furthermore, a number of case studies illustrate the role of energetic polyerms on enhancing the performance of formulations as compared to their inert counterparts. The emphasis is on safety throughout, with practical guidance on how to safely handle and formulate energetic polymer based formulations. With the advent of a new generation of energetic polymers, this book is relevant to industry and defense organizations as well as for academic research.
Highlighted by more than 350 full-color photographs and illustrations, a comprehensive study of sustainable, energy-efficient, and healthful home construction offers a detailed explanation of green building fundamentals that covers such topics as site planning, materials selection, efficient energy alternatives, indoor air quality, and more at every stage in the construction process, from framing to finishes. Original.

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