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From simple reflexes to complex movements, all animal behavior is governed by a nervous system. But what kind of government is it—a dictatorship or a democracy? Ari Berkowitz explains the variety of structures and strategies that control behavior, while providing an overview of thought-provoking debates and cutting-edge research.
Expounding on the results of the author’s work with the US Army Research Office, DARPA, the Office of Naval Research, and various defense industry contractors, Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots explores how to produce an "artificial conscience" in a new class of robots, humane-oids, which are robots that can potentially perform more ethically than humans in the battlefield. The author examines the philosophical basis, motivation, theory, and design recommendations for the implementation of an ethical control and reasoning system in autonomous robot systems, taking into account the Laws of War and Rules of Engagement. The book presents robot architectural design recommendations for Post facto suppression of unethical behavior, Behavioral design that incorporates ethical constraints from the onset, The use of affective functions as an adaptive component in the event of unethical action, and A mechanism that identifies and advises operators regarding their ultimate responsibility for the deployment of autonomous systems. It also examines why soldiers fail in battle regarding ethical decisions; discusses the opinions of the public, researchers, policymakers, and military personnel on the use of lethality by autonomous systems; provides examples that illustrate autonomous systems’ ethical use of force; and includes relevant Laws of War. Helping ensure that warfare is conducted justly with the advent of autonomous robots, this book shows that the first steps toward creating robots that not only conform to international law but outperform human soldiers in their ethical capacity are within reach in the future. It supplies the motivation, philosophy, formalisms, representational requirements, architectural design criteria, recommendations, and test scenarios to design and construct an autonomous robotic system capable of ethically using lethal force. Ron Arkin was quoted in a November 2010 New York Times article about robots in the military.
Animal learning and human learning traditions have been distinguishable within psychology since the start of the discipline and are to this day. The human learning wing was interested in the development of psychological functions in human organisms and proceeded directly to their examination. The animal learning wing was not distinguished by a corresponding interest in animal behavior per se. Rather, the animal learners studied animal behavior in order to identify principles of behavior of relevance to humans as well as other organisms. The two traditions, in other words, did not differ so much on goals as on strategies. It is not by accident that so many techniques of modem applied psychol ogy have emerged from the animal laboratory. That was one of the ultimate purposes of this work from the very beginning. The envisioned extension to humans was not just technological, however. Many animal researchers, B. F. Skinner most prominently among them, recognized that direct basic research with humans might ultimately be needed in certain areas but that it was wise first to build a strong foundation in the controlled environment of the animal laboratory. In a sense, animal learning was always in part a human research program in development.
This book critically explores the urban governance of healthy lifestyles and the contemporary problems of the obesity, sedentary, and alcohol "epidemics." It is based on US and UK case studies that shed light on the complex socio-spatial dynamics of individual decisions and personal responsibilities for health, and it argues for an engagement with the construct of "sensible" behavior at a time of its rising political salience. The book is very topical, and in line with the current political drive to pull back such 'Nanny State' interventions.
"This study analyzed the driver gap acceptance and rejection behavior during mandatory lane changes on a multilane freeway in congested and uncongested traffic conditions. During a lane change, drivers were more receptive to either the leading or the trailing gaps with vehicles in the target lane which governed the drivers' lane change and is termed as the governing gap. Drivers maneuvered till the governing gap was greater than the critical gap, accepted the gap and made a lane change. In this process, drivers reduced the non-governing gap to increase the length of the governing gap. The drivers as a result were found to be consistent with respect to the governing gap and inconsistent with respect to the non-governing gap. The governing gap, therefore, addresses the consistent driver behavior and avoids categorization of drivers as inconsistent. Critical gaps were estimated based on the consistent driver behavior using accepted and LRLA gaps, firstly, by categorizing the drivers based on the governing gap and the type of maneuver, and secondly, by categorizing the drivers based on the relative speeds. For a simple lane change model, categorization by governing gap and type of maneuver will be sufficient with a critical gap value distribution defined by empirical data for congested and uncongested traffic conditions. For a sophisticated lane change model, in addition to maneuver types, critical gaps estimated based on difference in relative speeds will help better replicate the realistic lane change behavior of drivers in case of congested traffic conditions"--Abstract, leaf iv.
The global trend toward self-governing schools (SGS) liberates school heads from bureaucratic shackles, making them leaders in their own right. The many challenges posed by the SGS model make it imperative that school leaders pursue professional development in leadership and management. This book draws on the author’s 34 years of experience in guiding, educating and training school leaders to offer a cutting edge prescription for professional development in school leadership.
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