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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 24. Chapters: Glarus thrust, Flims, Iberian plate, Wetterstein limestone, Elm, Switzerland, Molasse basin, Penninic, Austroalpine nappes, Betic corridor, Alpine orogeny, Gotthard nappe, Helvetic, Ha eg Island, Sesia zone, Periadriatic Seam, Aarmassif, External massif, Valais Ocean, Piemont-Liguria Ocean, Apulian Plate, Helvetic nappes, Piz Dolf, Southern Alps, Giudic rie line, Ringelspitz, B ndner schist, Piz Segnas, Greywacke zone, Ivrea zone, Lepontin dome, Brian onnais zone, Infrahelvetic complex, Hohe Tauern window, Dent Blanche nappe, Zermatt-Saas zone, Rh ne-Simplon line, Penninic thrustfront, M rtschenstock. Excerpt: The Alps form a part of a Tertiary orogenic belt of mountain chains, called the Alpide belt, that stretches through southern Europe and Asia from the Atlantic all the way to the Himalayas. This belt of mountain chains was formed during the Alpine orogeny. A gap in these mountain chains in central Europe separates the Alps from the Carpathians to the east. Orogeny took place continuously and tectonic subsidence has produced the gaps in between. The Alps arose as a result of the collision of the African and European tectonic plates, in which the Alpine Tethys, which was formerly in between these continents, disappeared. Enormous stress was exerted on sediments of the Alpine Tethys basin and its Mesozoic and early Cenozoic strata were pushed against the stable Eurasian landmass by the northward-moving African landmass. Most of this occurred during the Oligocene and Miocene epochs. The pressure formed great recumbent folds, or nappes, that rose out of what had become the Alpine Tethys and pushed northward, often breaking and sliding one over the other to form gigantic thrust faults. Crystalline basement rocks, which are exposed in the higher central regions, are the rocks forming Mont Blanc, the Matterhorn, and hi...