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The concepts of self-similarity and scale invariance have arisen independently in several areas. One is the study of the critical properties of phase transitions; another is fractal geometry, which involves the concept of (non-integer) fractal dimension. These two areas have now come together, and their methods have extended to various fields of physics. The purpose of this Symposium was to provide an overview of the physical phenomena that manifest scale invariance and fractal properties with the aim of bringing out the common mathematical features. The emphasis was on theoretical and experimental work related to well defined physical phenomena.
Almost all real systems are nonlinear. For a nonlinear system the superposition principle breaks down: The system's response is not proportional to the stimulus it receives; the whole is more than the sum of its parts. The three parts of this book contains the basics of nonlinear science, with applications in physics. Part I contains an overview of fractals, chaos, solitons, pattern formation, cellular automata and complex systems. In Part II, 14 reviews and essays by pioneers, as well as 10 research articles are reprinted. Part III collects 17 students projects, with computer algorithms for simulation models included.The book can be used for self-study, as a textbook for a one-semester course, or as supplement to other courses in linear or nonlinear systems. The reader should have some knowledge in introductory college physics. No mathematics beyond calculus and no computer literacy are assumed.
This text describes the statistcal behavior of complex systems and shows how the fractional calculus can be used to model the behavior. The discussion emphasizes physical phenomena whose evolution is best described using the fractional calculus, such as systems with long-range spatial interactions or long-time memory. The book gives general strategies for understanding wave propagation through random media, the nonlinear response of complex materials, and the fluctuations of heat transport in heterogeneous materials.
Reprint from Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH), Volume 131 (1989), No. 1
Concisely and clearly written, this book provides a self-contained introduction to the basic concepts of fractals and demonstrates their use in a range of topics in condensed matter physics and statistical mechanics. The first part outlines different fractal structures observed in condensed matter. The main part of the book is dedicated to the dynamical behaviour of fractal structures, including anomalous and percolating systems. The concept of multifractals is illustrated for the metal-insulator quantum phase transition. The authors emphasizes the unified description of these different dynamic problems, thus making the book accessible to readers who are new to the field.