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It is an inescapable fact that causation, both generally (in populations), and specifically (in individuals), cannot be observed. Rather, causation is determined when it can be inferred that the risk of an observed injury or disease from a plausible cause is greater than the risk from other plausible causes. While many causal evaluations performed in forensic medicine are simplified by the fact that the circumstances surrounding the onset of an injury or disease clearly rules out competing causes (eg, a death following a fall), there are many cases that present a more complicated picture. It is these types of investigations, in which an analysis of comparative levels of risk from competing causes is needed to arrive at a reliable and accurate determination of the most likely cause, that forensic epidemiology (FE) is directed at. In Forensic Epidemiology, the authors present the legal and scientific theories underlying the methods by which risk is used in the investigation of individual causation. Methods and principles from epidemiology are combined with those from a multitude of other disciplines, including general medicine, pharmacology, forensic pathology, biostatistics, and biomechanics, inter alia, as a basis for investigating the plausibility of injury and disease exposures and mechanisms. The ultimate determination of the probability of causation (PC) results from an assessment of the strength of association of the investigated relationship in the individual, based on a comparison between the risk of disease or injury from the investigated exposure versus the risk of the same disease or injury occurring at the same point in time in the individual, but absent the exposure. The principles and methods described in Forensic Epidemiology will be of interest to those who work and study in the fields of forensic medicine, epidemiology, and the law. Historical perspective on how epidemiologic evidence of causation has been used in courts in the US and Europe Theory and science underlying the use of risk to assess individual causation Primer on epidemiologic methods, and various measures used to arrive at individualized comparative risk assessments and PC The use of statistical methods applied to publicly available data for ad hoc analysis of PC applicable to the specific circumstances of a case Background on complementary disciplines, including forensic pathology, death investigation, biomechanics, and survival analysis Examples of applied FE in the investigation of traffic injury and death, automotive and other product defect litigation, medical negligence, and criminal prosecution and defense
After 9/11, forensic epidemiology emerged as a leading investigative tool, partnering public health officers with law enforcement like never before. Based on the authors’ first-hand experience, Forensic Epidemiology brings to light the vast amounts of information collected by medical examiners that will be useful in advancing death investigation techniques among the forensic science, public health, and law enforcement fields. This practical resource begins with a brief overview of epidemiological science and the history of forensic epidemiology before examining the multiple functions of death certificates and the signature role of forensic epidemiologists in death investigations. Incorporating numerous illustrations and real-world examples, the book: Explains proven methods to collect, analyze, and interpret data for criminal investigations Defines the terminology, methodology, procedures, and goals of all sectors involved for more effective collaboration Examines deaths from natural, suicidal, accidental, homicidal, and undetermined causes Describes the various decomposition states and methods used to establish positive identity The increased frequency of criminal acts that involve deliberate biological and chemical agents underscores the need for collaboration between law enforcement investigators and public health professionals. As Forensic Epidemiology effectively demonstrates, when they work together, they can mount a powerful and successful response to threats to the American public. Dr. Steven A. Koehler was interviewed in Volume 12 of Anil Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology.
Thoroughly revamped and revised edition carrying precise information in a concise manner. Radical changes have been effected in the chapters Death and Its Medicolegal Aspects: Forensic Thanatology; Sudden and Unexpected Deaths; Asphyxial Deaths; Deaths Associated with Surgery, Anaesthesia and Blood Transfusion; Custody Related Torture and/or Death; Medicolegal Examination of the Living; Injuries by Firearms; Complications of Trauma: Was Wounding Responsible for Death?; Consent to and Refusal of Treatment; Medical Negligence; and Intricacies of Forensic Toxicology. Enriched with photographs, drawings, sketches, flowcharts, and tables for easy and catchy understanding. Old cases have been replaced with new ones, making way for the readers to appreciate medicolegal implications. Reflects author’s personal experience of about three decades and the knowledge gathered from extensive reading, interactions, deliberations, etc. at various platforms.
As globalization causes profound changes in business, industry, and trade,it can also have significant effects on populations, environments, and individuals.These effects may be harmful, resulting in injury or illness, prompting the critical question: How best to correct wrongs caused to individuals, communities, and/or the environment of one country by the actions of individuals or corporations of another? Possible answers lie in an emerging discipline. Forensic Epidemiology in the Global Context opens meaningful windows onto the processes of forensic epidemiology, the roles of the epidemiologist in civil disputes, and the potential contribution of the field to legal and justice efforts worldwide. Case examples from the U.K., Nigeria, Ecuador, Romania, and Australia illustrate commonly used methodologies and the challenges involved in their use in U.S. and international courts of law. A chapter on expert testimony takes readers through qualification and admissibility issues, report requirements, and working with attorneys. Included in the coverage: Forensic epidemiology in the international legal arena. The epidemiologist as an expert in litigation. Epidemiological evidence in tort law: dispatches from the U.K. Liability for occupational exposure: the role of epidemiology. Forensic epidemiology and environmental justice. Forensic epidemiology, pathology, ethnics, and human rights. By emphasizing both the scientific and legal components of the equation, Forensic Epidemiology in the Global Context gives researchers and graduate students in epidemiology a unique and timely guide to the present and future of an increasingly salient field.
Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 5th Edition, by Meir H. Kryger, MD, FRCPC, Thomas Roth, PhD, and William C. Dement, MD, PhD, delivers the comprehensive, dependable guidance you need to effectively diagnose and manage even the most challenging sleep disorders. Updates to genetics and circadian rhythms, occupational health, sleep in older people, memory and sleep, physical examination of the patient, comorbid insomnias, and much more keep you current on the newest areas of the field. A greater emphasis on evidence-based approaches helps you make the most well-informed clinical decisions. And, a new more user-friendly, full-color format, both in print and online, lets you find the answers you need more quickly and easily. Whether you are preparing for the new sleep medicine fellowship examination, or simply want to offer your patients today's best care, this is the one resource to use! Make optimal use of the newest scientific discoveries and clinical approaches that are advancing the diagnosis and management of sleep disorders. Stay on top of the hottest topics in sleep medicine with 56 new chapters, including: Postpartum Sleep Disturbances Fatigue Risk Management What does Brain Imaging Reveal about Sleep Genesis and Maintenance? Physician Examination of the Sleep Patient Forensic Sleep Medicine Pathophysiology and Models of Insomnia Treatment of Insomnia: Developing Treatment Guidelines Restrictive Lung Disorders Sleep Medicine in the Elderly: Obstructive Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Metabolic, and Renal Disorders Sleep Apnea, Obesity and Bariatric Surgery Sleep and Renal Disease Theories of Dreaming Why We Dream Sleep, Stress, and Burnout Evaluating Sleep EEG and Sleep Stage Scoring And more Master the newest areas in the field with 5 new sections covering: Sleep Mechanisms and Phylogeny Genetics of Sleep Physiology in Sleep Occupational Sleep Medicine Sleep Medicine in the Elderly Apply evidence-based approaches wherever available. Find answers more easily thanks to a new user-friendly, full-color format. Access the complete contents online from any computer and perform rapid searches on any topic. Follow links to PubMed abstracts for most bibliographical references. Access regular updates reflecting important new clinical developments. View video clips demonstrating key manifestations of sleep disturbances and interviews with sleep medicine pioneers and thought leaders. Enhance your knowledge with hundreds of self-assessment questions. Download patient education handouts in multiple languages. Import all of the images and tables into PowerPoint.
As a result of scientific advancements and changing demographics in the United States and around the world, people of all ethnic groups and nationalities are retaining their teeth longer. Todays oral health professionals must therefore be prepared to make educated and scientifically-reasoned choices addressing a wide range of oral diseases for patients of all ages, and for ambulatory as well as non-ambulatory patients across all demographic profiles. As the first text of its kind, Oral Health Epidemiology: Principles and Practice explores the full spectrum of epidemiological and translational clinical research including fundamental mechanisms of human disease, therapeutic intervention, clinical trials, and oral epidemiology. Topics that are unique to oral health, such as the frequent use of split-mouth design on oral research, crossover techniques and clustered nature of caries, periodontal and other dental disease data, are all thoroughly addressed. Key Features: Thoroughly explores clinicaltranslational research and the special needs of oral health study designs that are applicable across all specialties in dentistry. Serves as a basic guide to advanced techniques such as bioinformatics, genetics, molecular biology, and computer simulation, biostatistics that are now used regularly in oral health research. Prepares the reader to design studies, translate the findings to practice, and conduct logical critique of scientific literature.
The second edition of this award-winning textbook has been thoroughly revised and updated throughout. Building on the success of the first edition, the book continues to address the History and Practice of Forensic Psychiatry, Legal Regulation of the Practice of Psychiatry, Psychiatry in relation to Civil Law, Criminal Law, and Family Law. Important sections such as Special Issues in Forensic Psychiatry, Law and the Legal System, and Landmark Cases in Mental Health Law are included. Designed to meet the needs of practitioners of forensic psychiatry, for residents in forensic psychiatry, and those preparing for the specialty examination in Forensic Psychiatry of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, this volume will also answer the many questions faced by mental health professionals, mental health administrators, correctional health professionals and correctional health administrators, attorneys, judges, probation and parole officers and administrators all of whom, at one time or another, require a substantive presentation of the entire field of forensic psychiatry in the USA.

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