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This book presents a thorough analysis of the EU provisions and legal framework of passenger rights in the civil aviation field. It provides both a theoretical and practical view of the initiatives that have been taken in this field. This includes initiatives taken by the European Commission (EC) with the aim to improve the protection of passengers and by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) with regard to jurisprudence. The book points out the goals that have been obtained so far, as well as the goals that still need to be pursued. Particular attention is paid to EU institutions that have been created ad hoc to supervise aviation safety and harmonize the various safety procedures of the EU Member States. Recent and upcoming packages of important safety and security measures are examined in detail. The book gives examples of current applications of legislative instruments and presents readers with the tools to gain a deeper understanding of the legal, practical and theoretical aspects of this important topic in aviation.
This book discusses all critical privacy and data protection aspects of biometric systems from a legal perspective. It contains a systematic and complete analysis of the many issues raised by these systems based on examples worldwide and provides several recommendations for a transnational regulatory framework. An appropriate legal framework is in most countries not yet in place. Biometric systems use facial images, fingerprints, iris and/or voice in an automated way to identify or to verify (identity) claims of persons. The treatise which has an interdisciplinary approach starts with explaining the functioning of biometric systems in general terms for non-specialists. It continues with a description of the legal nature of biometric data and makes a comparison with DNA and biological material and the regulation thereof. After describing the risks, the work further reviews the opinions of data protection authorities in relation to biometric systems and current and future (EU) law. A detailed legal comparative analysis is made of the situation in Belgium, France and the Netherlands. The author concludes with an evaluation of the proportionality principle and the application of data protection law to biometric data processing operations, mainly in the private sector. Pleading for more safeguards in legislation, the author makes several suggestions for a regulatory framework aiming at reducing the risks of biometric systems. They include limitations to the collection and storage of biometric data as well as technical measures, which could influence the proportionality of the processing. The text is supported by several figures and tables providing a summary of particular points of the discussion. The book also uses the 2012 biometric vocabulary adopted by ISO and contains an extensive bibliography and literature sources.
This book explores the EU law notion of ‘individual rights’. It examines which sorts of rules grant EU legal rights to individuals, how it is decided if a right is conferred, and which individuals may claim the judicial protection of a right. It further discusses the legal implications and consequences of holding an EU legal right with respect to the interpretation and application of EU law in general and to specific remedies such as declaratory remedies, injunctions, restitution and damages. On a more overarching level, the book explores the question of how the idea of EU law rights relates to other fundamental EU law concepts such as the principles of effectiveness and direct effect, and discusses the legal stringency of the EU courts’ ‘rights language’ in light of the overall aim of European integration. It thus contributes to the body of literature that aims to shed new light on the borders of the sui generis legal order that is EU law.
Virtually all organisations collect, use, process and share personal data from their employees, customers and/or citizens. In doing so, they may be exposing themselves to risks, from threats and vulnerabilities, of that data being breached or compromised by negligent or wayward employees, hackers, the police, intelligence agencies or third-party service providers. A recent study by the Ponemon Institute found that 70 per cent of organisations surveyed had suffered a data breach in the previous year. Privacy impact assessment is a tool, a process, a methodology to identify, assess, mitigate or avoid privacy risks and, in collaboration with stakeholders, to identify solutions. Contributors to this book – privacy commissioners, academics, consultants, practitioners, industry representatives – are among the world’s leading PIA experts. They share their experience and offer their insights to the reader in the policy and practice of PIA in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States and elsewhere. This book, the first such on privacy impact assessment, will be of interest to any organisation that collects or uses personal data and, in particular, to regulators, policy-makers, privacy professionals, including privacy, security and information officials, consultants, system architects, engineers and integrators, compliance lawyers and marketing professionals. In his Foreword, surveillance studies guru Gary Marx says, “This state-of-the-art book describes the most comprehensive tool yet available for policy-makers to evaluate new personal data information technologies before they are introduced.” This book could save your organisation many thousands or even millions of euros (or dollars) and the damage to your organisation’s reputation and to the trust of employees, customers or citizens if it suffers a data breach that could have been avoided if only it had performed a privacy impact assessment before deploying a new technology, product, service or other initiative involving personal data.
Privacy and data protection in police work and law enforcement cooperation has always been a challenging issue. Current developments in EU internal security policy, such as increased information sharing (which includes the exchange of personal data between European law enforcement agencies and judicial actors in the area of freedom, security and justice (Europol, Eurojust, Frontex and OLAF)) and the access of EU agencies, in particular Europol and Eurojust, to data stored in European information systems such as the SIS (II), VIS, CIS or Eurodac raise interesting questions regarding the balance between the rights of individuals and security interests. This book deals with the complexity of the relations between these actors and offers for the first time a comprehensive overview of the structures for information exchange in the area of freedom, security and justice and their compliance with data protection rules in this field.
Edited byThe European Union in the World: Essays in Honour of Marc MaresceauEdited by is dedicated to the academic career of Marc Maresceau, a world-renowned expert in EU external relations law and pioneer in EU enlargement and neighbourhood studies. With a special focus on the post-Lisbon legal framework of EU external action, the book builds further upon the implementation of the reforms initiated by the Lisbon Treaty to offer virtually all-encompassing analysis of EU external relations law by top-level specialists.
This work analyses the legal challenges posed by contemporary practices of extraterritorial immigration control: visas, pre-embarkation checks and the interception of irregular migrants. It examines the international law framework, and provides case-studies from Europe, Australia and the United States.

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