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From bridges and tunnels to nuclear waste repositories, structures require that soils maintain their design engineering properties if the structures are to reach their projected life spans. The same is true for earth dams, levees, buffers, barriers for landfills, and other structures that use soils as engineered materials. Yet soil, a natural resource, continues to change as a result of natural and anthropogenic stresses. As the discipline of soil properties and behaviours matures, new tools and techniques are making it possible to study these properties and behaviours in more depth. What Happens to Soil Under Weathering, Aging, and Chemical Stress? Environmental Soil Properties and Behaviour examines changes in soil properties and behaviour caused by short- and long-term stresses from anthropogenic activities and environmental forces. Introducing new concepts of soil behaviour, soil maturation, and soil functionality, it integrates soil physics, soil chemistry, and soil mechanics as vital factors in soil engineering. The book focuses on environmental soil behaviour, with particular attention to two main inter-related groups of soil–environment issues. The first is the use of soil as an environmental tool for management and containment of toxic and hazardous waste materials. The second is the impact of ageing and weathering processes and soil contamination on the properties and behaviour of soils, especially those used in geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering projects. A Transdisciplinary Look at Soil-Changing Processes To determine short- and long-term soil quality and soil functionality, the authors emphasize the need to be aware of the nature of the stressors involved as well as the kinds of soil-changing processes that are evoked. This book takes a first step toward a much-needed transdisciplinary effort to develop a broader and deeper understanding of what happens to soil and how we can determine and quantify the effect of biogeochemical processes. It offers a timely resource for the study of soil properties and behaviours, effects of environmental changes, and remediation of contaminated soil.
"I've seen the Sudan, traveled in South and Central America and been all over Europe, but I've never seen what I've been able to see on this tour [of the Loess Plateau, China]." -Ed Skidmore, soil scientist, Wind Erosion Research Unit of the Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Manhattan, Kansas Overpopulation is at the core of most environmental problems. The impacts of continued growth-with world population reaching 6 billion in October 1999-are felt in most parts of the world. China, the most populous nation, illustrates many of the pivotal problems-and solutions. Although China faces the same effects of overpopulation as the rest of the world, it still feeds over a billion people on a tillable area that allows about one tenth of a hectare per person. The country's efforts to tie together soil and water conservation, dryland farming, and economic development have been largely successful. Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming explores these trials and the lessons learned from them. Copublished with the Soil and Water Conservation Society, this exhaustive text consists of the rewritten proceedings from the Society's conference held in Yangling, Shaanxi, China. It covers dryland farming systems and soil water management, environmental quality and sustainability, and erosion control techniques as they relate primarily to Mainland China. With additional global examples and a balance between conceptual and applied studies, it covers some of the most progressive work in soil erosion control and dryland farming from around the world. Soil exposure while land lies fallow is one of the greatest risks in dryland farming. New procedures and kinds of tillage help control erosion and improve water intake. Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming presents these techniques and technologies to give you a forward-looking perspective into the field, as well as the larger problem of tailoring food production to sustain the population.
Developments in soil classification have accompanied parallel progress in our understanding of the soil system. However the theories behind the classifications and the purposes for which they were created have changed over time. The editors hope that this comprehensive synthesis will help to rally soil scientists around the world to develop an acceptable classification system for soils. It is only when the global soil science community agrees to such a system that we can truly say that we have science. Soil Classification: A Global Desk Reference is the first book to illustrate the current state of national and international soil classification systems. In this groundbreaking reference, distinguished soil scientists, many of whom were involved in the design of their respective national or international systems, evaluate developments in soil classification during the last century. They review the concepts, practices, and goals that led to the creation of individual classification systems and recommend modifications to classification systems to meet new demands. The documentation in this book serves as a foundation for the revision of existing soil taxonomies and the creation of new ones.
Nature of soils. Clay minerals in soils. Soil fabric and structure. Soil water. Water movement in soils. Volume changes in clay soils. Consolidation and compression. Yield and failure. Granular soil strength. Cohesive soil strength. Soil freezing and permafrost.
Principles of Soil Physics examines the impact of the physical, mechanical, and hydrological properties and processes of soil on agricultural production, the environment, and sustainable use of natural resources. The text incorporates valuable assessment methods, graphs, problem sets, and tables from recent studies performed around the globe and offers an abundance of tables, photographs, and easy-to-follow equations in every chapter. The book discusses the consequences of soil degradation, such as erosion, inhibited root development, and poor aeration. It begins by defining soil physics, soil mechanics, textural properties, and packing arrangements . The text continues to discuss the theoretical and practical aspects of soil structure and explain the significance and measurement of bulk density, porosity, and compaction. The authors proceed to clarify soil hydrology topics including hydrologic cycle, water movement, infiltration, modeling, soil evaporation, and solute transport processes. They address the impact of soil temperature on crop growth, soil aeration, and the processes that lead to the emission of greenhouse gases. The final chapters examine the physical properties of gravelly soils and water movement in frozen, saline, and water-repellant soils. Reader-friendly and up-to-date, Principles of Soil Physics provides unparalleled coverage of issues related to soil physics, structure, hydrology, aeration, temperature, and analysis and presents practical techniques for maintaining soil quality to ultimately preserve its sustainability.
This Book Brings Out The Possibilities Of Generalizations Of Behaviour Of Soils And Hence Of Predicting The Required Engineering Properties Without Elaborate Testing. We Recognize That A Single Approach Cannot Be Evolved For All Soil Types And Hence The Necessity For Classifying Soils Into Different Categories And To Use Appropriate Model For Each. First Of All, Based On Mechanism Of Stress Transfer And Interaction Between The Phases, Two Obvious Classes, The Fine Grained And Coarse-Grained Soils Have Been Differentiated.The Discussions Bring Out That Because Of Identical Mode Of Stress Transfer, The Mechanical Behaviour I.E., Compressibility, Shear Strength Relations, Permeability Variations Etc. Can Be Generalized For All Fine Grained Soils, Enabling The Prediction Of Behaviour Of Such Soils With Just The Knowledge Of Certain State And Index Properties. The Sequence Of Discussion Is On The Characterization Of Specific Soil States And Prediction Of Proportion Starting From The Ideal Saturated Uncemented Soils, Both Normally And Over Consolidated, Cemented Saturated Soils And Partly Saturated Soils.In Dealing With The Behaviour Of Coarse Grained Soils, The Importance Of Microfabric And The Difficulties In Possible Generalizations Are Discussed. Perhaps The Unique Feature Of This Book Is That The Division Of The Chapters Is Based On Different Soil States, All The Mechanical Behaviours Being Discussed Under Each Soil State.The Book Will Be Of Interest To Both Academicians And Practising Engineers, Researchers And Postgraduate Students. It Would Serve As A Textbook For Undergraduate Students With Prior Knowledge Of Basic Soil Mechanics.
This introductory text aims to help students understand the behavior of soils in both the man-made and the natural environment. The book is structured in two parts: Part A is an introduction to general soil properties and processes, while Part B considers soil in relation to the environment, covering topics such as the role of soil in supporting plant growth, in maintaining a clean environment, and in the flux of atmospheric gases. Issues such as acidification, contamination, conservation and erosion are also considered.

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