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From bridges and tunnels to nuclear waste repositories, structures require that soils maintain their design engineering properties if the structures are to reach their projected life spans. The same is true for earth dams, levees, buffers, barriers for landfills, and other structures that use soils as engineered materials. Yet soil, a natural resource, continues to change as a result of natural and anthropogenic stresses. As the discipline of soil properties and behaviours matures, new tools and techniques are making it possible to study these properties and behaviours in more depth. What Happens to Soil Under Weathering, Aging, and Chemical Stress? Environmental Soil Properties and Behaviour examines changes in soil properties and behaviour caused by short- and long-term stresses from anthropogenic activities and environmental forces. Introducing new concepts of soil behaviour, soil maturation, and soil functionality, it integrates soil physics, soil chemistry, and soil mechanics as vital factors in soil engineering. The book focuses on environmental soil behaviour, with particular attention to two main inter-related groups of soil–environment issues. The first is the use of soil as an environmental tool for management and containment of toxic and hazardous waste materials. The second is the impact of ageing and weathering processes and soil contamination on the properties and behaviour of soils, especially those used in geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering projects. A Transdisciplinary Look at Soil-Changing Processes To determine short- and long-term soil quality and soil functionality, the authors emphasize the need to be aware of the nature of the stressors involved as well as the kinds of soil-changing processes that are evoked. This book takes a first step toward a much-needed transdisciplinary effort to develop a broader and deeper understanding of what happens to soil and how we can determine and quantify the effect of biogeochemical processes. It offers a timely resource for the study of soil properties and behaviours, effects of environmental changes, and remediation of contaminated soil.
Soil Properties and Behavior defines the structure of the soil-water system. This book provides the background of the nature of mineral particles and the existing forces between the particles in the soil system. It also examines the structure and fabric of soil, as well as their relationship with water. Furthermore, the book explores water movement and soil performance, which are related to the physics of soil-water movement and volume changes. This book illustrates the common clay minerals in soils and discusses the methods for their identification. It also reviews the theory of one-dimensional consolidation and discusses the soil structure in consolidation and compression. The book also presents the concepts of yield and failure in soils, yield criteria, and failure theories. It also focuses on granular and cohesive soil strength, including friction properties, the intrinsic friction angle, the volumetric strain, and pore-water pressure. The last part of the book discusses soil freezing and permafrost.
This Book Brings Out The Possibilities Of Generalizations Of Behaviour Of Soils And Hence Of Predicting The Required Engineering Properties Without Elaborate Testing. We Recognize That A Single Approach Cannot Be Evolved For All Soil Types And Hence The Necessity For Classifying Soils Into Different Categories And To Use Appropriate Model For Each. First Of All, Based On Mechanism Of Stress Transfer And Interaction Between The Phases, Two Obvious Classes, The Fine Grained And Coarse-Grained Soils Have Been Differentiated.The Discussions Bring Out That Because Of Identical Mode Of Stress Transfer, The Mechanical Behaviour I.E., Compressibility, Shear Strength Relations, Permeability Variations Etc. Can Be Generalized For All Fine Grained Soils, Enabling The Prediction Of Behaviour Of Such Soils With Just The Knowledge Of Certain State And Index Properties. The Sequence Of Discussion Is On The Characterization Of Specific Soil States And Prediction Of Proportion Starting From The Ideal Saturated Uncemented Soils, Both Normally And Over Consolidated, Cemented Saturated Soils And Partly Saturated Soils.In Dealing With The Behaviour Of Coarse Grained Soils, The Importance Of Microfabric And The Difficulties In Possible Generalizations Are Discussed. Perhaps The Unique Feature Of This Book Is That The Division Of The Chapters Is Based On Different Soil States, All The Mechanical Behaviours Being Discussed Under Each Soil State.The Book Will Be Of Interest To Both Academicians And Practising Engineers, Researchers And Postgraduate Students. It Would Serve As A Textbook For Undergraduate Students With Prior Knowledge Of Basic Soil Mechanics.
623435-28b.gif Volume B covers the ecological significance of the interactions among clay minerals, organic matter and soil biota. Soil is a dynamic system in which soil minerals constantly interact with organic matter and microorganisms. Close association among abiotic and biotic entities governs several chemical and biogeochemical processes and affects bioavailability, speciation, toxicity, transformations and transport of xenobiotics and organics in soil environments. This book elaborates critical research and an integrated view on basic aspects of mineral weathering reactions; formation and surface reactivity of soil minerals with respect to nutrients and environmental pollutants; dynamics and transformation of metals, metalloids, and natural and anthropogenic organics; effects of soil colloids on microorganisms and immobilization and activity of enzymes, and metabolic processes, growth and ecology of microbes. It offers up-to-date information on the impact of such a processes on soil development, agricultural production, environmental protection, and ecosystem integrity.
President Carter’s 1980 declaration of a state of emergency at Love Canal, New York, recognized that residents’ health had been affected by nearby chemical waste sites. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, enacted in 1976, ushered in a new era of waste management disposal designed to protect the public from harm. It required that modern waste containment systems use “engineered†barriers designed to isolate hazardous and toxic wastes and prevent them from seeping into the environment. These containment systems are now employed at thousands of waste sites around the United States, and their effectiveness must be continually monitored. Assessment of the Performance of Engineered Waste Containment Barriers assesses the performance of waste containment barriers to date. Existing data suggest that waste containment systems with liners and covers, when constructed and maintained in accordance with current regulations, are performing well thus far. However, they have not been in existence long enough to assess long-term (postclosure) performance, which may extend for hundreds of years. The book makes recommendations on how to improve future assessments and increase confidence in predictions of barrier system performance which will be of interest to policy makers, environmental interest groups, industrial waste producers, and industrial waste management industry.

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