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This book is a must-have reference to dry etching technology for semiconductors, which will enable engineers to develop new etching processes for further miniaturization and integration of semiconductor integrated circuits. The author describes the device manufacturing flow, and explains in which part of the flow dry etching is actually used. The content is designed as a practical guide for engineers working at chip makers, equipment suppliers and materials suppliers, and university students studying plasma, focusing on the topics they need most, such as detailed etching processes for each material (Si, SiO2, Metal etc) used in semiconductor devices, etching equipment used in manufacturing fabs, explanation of why a particular plasma source and gas chemistry are used for the etching of each material, and how to develop etching processes. The latest, key technologies are also described, such as 3D IC Etching, Dual Damascene Etching, Low-k Etching, Hi-k/Metal Gate Etching, FinFET Etching, Double Patterning etc.
This book has been written as part of a series of scientific books being published by Plenum Press. The scope of the series is to review a chosen topic in each volume. To supplement this information, the abstracts to the most important references cited in the text are reprinted, thus allowing the reader to find in-depth material without having to refer to many additional publications. This volume is dedicated to the field of dry (plasma) etching, as applied in silicon semiconductor processing. Although a number of books have appeared dealing with this area of physics and chemistry, these all deal with parts of the field. This book is unique in that it gives a compact, yet complete, in-depth overview of fundamentals, systems, processes, tools, and applications of etching with gas plasmas for VLSI. Examples are given throughout the fundamental sections, in order to give the reader a better insight in the meaning and magnitude of the many parameters relevant to dry etching. Electrical engineering concepts are emphasized to explain the pros and cons of reactor concepts and excitation frequency ranges. In the description of practical applications, extensive use is made of cross-referencing between processes and materials, as well as theory and practice. It is thus intended to provide a total model for understanding dry etching. The book has been written such that no previous knowledge of the subject is required. It is intended as a review of all aspects of dry etching for silicon semiconductor processing.
The focus of this book is the remarkable advances in understanding of low pressure RF (radio frequency) glow discharges. A basic analytical theory and plasma physics are explained. Plasma diagnostics are also covered before the practicalities of etcher use are explored.
The drive toward new semiconductor technologies is intricately related to market demands for cheaper, smaller, faster, and more reliable circuits with lower power consumption. The development of new processing tools and technologies is aimed at optimizing one or more of these requirements. This goal can, however, only be achieved by a concerted effort between scientists, engineers, technicians, and operators in research, development, and manufac turing. It is therefore important that experts in specific disciplines, such as device and circuit design, understand the principle, capabil ities, and limitations of tools and processing technologies. It is also important that those working on specific unit processes, such as lithography or hot processes, be familiar with other unit processes used to manufacture the product. Several excellent books have been published on the subject of process technologies. These texts, however, cover subjects in too much detail, or do not cover topics important to modem tech nologies. This book is written with the need for a "bridge" between different disciplines in mind. It is intended to present to engineers and scientists those parts of modem processing technologies that are of greatest importance to the design and manufacture of semi conductor circuits. The material is presented with sufficient detail to understand and analyze interactions between processing and other semiconductor disciplines, such as design of devices and cir cuits, their electrical parameters, reliability, and yield.
This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book is the inclusion of an extensive literature review of dry processing, compiled by search of computerized data bases. A subject index allows ready access to the key points raised in each of the chapters.
Section 1 addresses the most recent developments in processes at the semiconductor-solution interface include etching, oxidation, passivation, film growth, porous semiconductor formation, electrochemical, photoelectrochemical, electroluminescence and photoluminescence processes, electroanalytical measurements and related topics on both elemental and compound semiconductors. Section 2 addresses the most recent developments in compound semiconductors encompassing advanced devices, materials growth, characterization, processing, device fabrication, reliability, and related topics.

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