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George Bush’s 1988 campaign pledge, "Read my lips: no new taxes," has become a mantra for those who distrust politicians and bureaucrats. The gulf between what political leaders say and do seems to be widening, and in democratic societies around the world, contributing to an atmosphere of cynicism and apathy among the citizenry. Understanding the characteristics and functions of speech in policy processes is a requirement for trying to overcome this problem; indeed, politicians and bureaucrats spend a good proportion of their time and resources discoursing, i.e., writing, speaking, and publishing. However, there has been scant analysis of political discourse; the aim of this book is to fill this analytical gap, by exploring political speech from a variety of perspectives, including normative, epistemological, and empirical. Incorporating insights from economics, political science, philosophy, and law, and evidence from the United States, Canada, France, Italy, Turkey, and the EU, the book addresses a wide variety of timely issues, including:. Fiscal discipline in speeches vs budget balance: Is an improvement (deterioration) of the budget balance preceded by a more (less) fiscally disciplined discourse? Revenues and spending forecasted in budget speeches vs realised budget outcomes: Is there a systematic bias? If so, how can we explain it? Electoral pledges vs actual realisations: Do governments follow up on their electoral pledges? Ideological stance in party publications vs spending and revenues of party governments: Do parties of the right and the left speak different languages? How can we validly classify a government as of the left or of the right? Is there a systematic difference between governments of the right and of the left in terms of their policy? Speeches by central bank officers vs monetary policy: Can changes in monetary policy be predicted by official speeches? The political business cycle: How can taking into consideration the speech-action relationship strengthen (or threaten) our knowledge about electoral and partisan cycles in public spending? Other questions explored include: Should policy makers always tell the truth and all the truth? What are the benefits and the costs of transparency? How can we resolve the apparent contradiction between the democratic demand for transparency and the efficiency requirement of secrecy in many policy areas (budget preparation, monetary policy, foreign policy, security, etc.)? Under which conditions is secrecy acceptable in a democratic society? To what extent may deception and lies lead to a breach of trust or to power abuse? What are the most efficient institutional mechanisms to prevent such abuse? Collectively, the authors present new insights for understanding political process and government activity, and suggest avenues for further research.
From the beginning of the seventh to the end of the eighth grade Matt went from being an A student to flunking out. While repeating the eighth grade, he was the MVP in three sports and was stealing cars on weekends. One night in April, 1988, he and two friends went out to steal a car. One of the friends shot and killed the driver. Trying to avoid a mandatory 25 years in prison, Matt accepted a plea of 60 years because he hoped he could reduce time served from 30 years to 12. Most young males are victimized by the dominant inmates in prison. At DeSoto Correctional Institute he was the youngest male among 1,100 men. Unbeknownst to his parents, Matt thrived in prison. He made and sold wine and loansharked, among other things. With his profits he bank-rolled a gambling operation. At one point he was sending money home to his brother. He paid one inmate to iron his clothes and another one to make his bed. But in his 6th year of incarceration he hit a man with a pipe in the middle of the night. He was sent to Close Management or "Solitary," for 13 months. For the first time he had experienced guilt for something he had done. It was the beginning of a spiritual awakening. The details of the crime and of his life leading up to it, the details of Matt's "business interests" while in prison, a love affair with an attractive female guard, the details of the fight mentioned above and the providential way in which Matt got clemency from Governor Chiles four months before he died of a heart attack, is all part of a riveting story.
Between 1957 and 1970, African-American women conducted Citizenship Education Program (CEP) classes across the South. In makeshift classrooms, they taught their neighbors to read and write well enough to pass the literacy tests required for voter registration. Incorporating African-American traditions of resistance and mutual assistance into their lessons, these grassroots leaders transformed citizenship from a seemingly static legal status into something to be performed and enacted in service to self and community. Individual achievement sowed the seeds for collective action as African Americans defined issues of common concern, developed strategies, and demanded change.
Redundant Masculinities? investigates the links between the so-called 'crisis of masculinity' and contemporary changes in the labour market through the lives of young working class men. Allows the voices of poorly-educated young men to be heard. Looks at how the labour market is changing. Emphasises the social construction of gender and racial identities. Dispels popular myths about the crisis in masculinity.
Money was worthless! It had no value! It couldn't buy a home, clothes, food. Someone with enormous quantities of cash was buying houses and tearing them down - buying stores and closing them. A few people could have stopped the transaction before it was too late. They could have said that Earth was being taken over by alien beings in the shapes of bowling balls, talking dogs, dolls that walked like men. In fact, they did say it. The trouble was, no one believed them.
Children's literature can be a powerful way to encourage and empower EFL students but is less commonly used in the classroom than adult literature. This text provides a comprehensive introduction to children's and young adult literature in EFL teaching. It demonstrates the complexity of children's literature and how it can encourage an active community of second language readers: with multilayered picturebooks, fairy tales, graphic novels and radical young adult fiction. It examines the opportunities of children's literature in EFL teacher education, including: the intertexuality of children's literature as a gate-opener for canonised adult literature; the rich patterning of children's literature supporting Creative Writing; the potential of interactive drama projects. Close readings of texts at the centre of contemporary literary scholarship, yet largely unknown in the EFL world, provide an invaluable guide for teacher educators and student teachers, including works by David Almond, Anthony Browne, Philip Pullman and J.K.Rowling. Introducing a range of genres and their significance for EFL teaching, this study makes an important new approach accessible for EFL teachers, student teachers and teacher educators.
A guide to the minds of women complied by 2,513 real interviews details the specifics of what women love and hate, with tips that can turn any man into an exceptional lover and partner. 20,000 first printing.

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