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Compressibility, Turbulence and High Speed Flow introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range, through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. The book provides the reader with the necessary background and current trends in the theoretical and experimental aspects of compressible turbulent flows and compressible turbulence. Detailed derivations of the pertinent equations describing the motion of such turbulent flows is provided and an extensive discussion of the various approaches used in predicting both free shear and wall bounded flows is presented. Experimental measurement techniques common to the compressible flow regime are introduced with particular emphasis on the unique challenges presented by high speed flows. Both experimental and numerical simulation work is supplied throughout to provide the reader with an overall perspective of current trends. An introduction to current techniques in compressible turbulent flow analysis An approach that enables engineers to identify and solve complex compressible flow challenges Prediction methodologies, including the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) method, scale filtered methods and direct numerical simulation (DNS) Current strategies focusing on compressible flow control
A good understanding of turbulent compressible flows is essential to the design and operation of high-speed vehicles. Such flows occur, for example, in the external flow over the surfaces of supersonic aircraft, and in the internal flow through the engines. Our ability to predict the aerodynamic lift, drag, propulsion and maneuverability of high-speed vehicles is crucially dependent on our knowledge of turbulent shear layers, and our understanding of their behavior in the presence of shock waves and regions of changing pressure. Turbulent Shear Layers in Supersonic Flow provides a comprehensive introduction to the field, and helps provide a basis for future work in this area. Wherever possible we use the available experimental work, and the results from numerical simulations to illustrate and develop a physical understanding of turbulent compressible flows.
The developments described in this thesis are two-fold. First, a state of the art closure approach for LES is extended to model subgrid turbulence in compressible flows. The energy transfers due to compressible turbulence and the diffusion of turbulent kinetic energy by pressure fluctuations are assessed and integrated in the Localized Dynamic ksgs model. Second, a hybrid numerical scheme is developed for the resolution of the LES equations and of the model transport equation, which combines a central scheme for turbulent resolutions to a shock-capturing method. A smoothness parameter is defined and used to switch from the base smooth solver to the upwind scheme in regions of discontinuities.
Research was conducted under this grant to advance fundamental understanding and predictive models of turbulent reacting flows relevant to Air Force needs in high-speed propulsion Advanced computational schemes including direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) were used in addition to turbulent combustion theory. Reduced chemical mechanisms for hydrogen-air combustion were developed and tested. Specific flows investigated include the reacting shear layer and the jet. A new mechanism that relates the reduction in fuel/oxidant mixing in high-speed flows to the inhibited communication of pressure signals was proposed. A resulting compressibility model was found to give good predictions. Both mean density changes and Mach number were found to affect the flow development in high-speed combustion. It was found that the transport and molecular mixing of reactive scalars are substantially affected by heat release and must be accounted for in closures of turbulence/chemistry interaction. LES of a spatially-evolving jet were performed and successfully compared with our DNS and previous experiments. New subgrid scale models were developed for LES of nonequilibrium flows. The results obtained here should help improve current abilities to analyze and design propulsion systems that employ high-speed turbulent combustion.
This volume comprises the communications presented at the ETC 11, the EUROMECH European Turbulence conference held in 2007 in Porto. The scientific committee has chosen the contributions out of the following topics: Acoustics of turbulent flows; Atmospheric turbulence; Control of turbulent flows; Geophysical and astrophysical turbulence; Instability and transition; Intermittency and scaling; Large eddy simulation and related techniques; MHD turbulence; Reacting and compressible turbulence; Transport and mixing; Turbulence in multiphase and non-Newtonian flows; Vortex dynamics and structure formation; Wall bounded flows.

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