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In 1925 Einstein predicted that at low temperatures particles in a gas could all reside in the same quantum state. This gaseous state, a Bose–Einstein condensate, was produced in the laboratory for the first time in 1995 and investigating such condensates has become one of the most active areas in contemporary physics. The study of Bose–Einstein condensates in dilute gases encompasses a number of different subfields of physics, including atomic, condensed matter, and nuclear physics. The authors of this graduate-level textbook explain this exciting new subject in terms of basic physical principles, without assuming detailed knowledge of any of these subfields. Chapters cover the statistical physics of trapped gases, atomic properties, cooling and trapping atoms, interatomic interactions, structure of trapped condensates, collective modes, rotating condensates, superfluidity, interference phenomena, and trapped Fermi gases. Problem sets are also included in each chapter.
Since an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, predicted by Einstein in 1925, was first produced in the laboratory in 1995, the study of ultracold Bose and Fermi gases has become one of the most active areas in contemporary physics. This book explains phenomena in ultracold gases from basic principles, without assuming a detailed knowledge of atomic, condensed matter, and nuclear physics. This new edition has been revised and updated, and includes new chapters on optical lattices, low dimensions, and strongly-interacting Fermi systems. This book provides a unified introduction to the physics of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as experimentalists and theorists. Chapters cover the statistical physics of trapped gases, atomic properties, cooling and trapping atoms, interatomic interactions, structure of trapped condensates, collective modes, rotating condensates, superfluidity, interference phenomena, and trapped Fermi gases. Problems are included at the end of each chapter.
Bose-Einstein condensation of dilute gases is an exciting new field of interdisciplinary physics. The eight chapters in this volume introduce its theoretical and experimental foundations. The authors are lucid expositors who have also made outstanding contributions to the field. They include theorists Tony Leggett, Allan Griffin and Keith Burnett, and Nobel-Prize-winning experimentalist Bill Phillips. In addition to the introductory material, there are articles treating topics at the forefront of research, such as experimental quantum phase engineering of condensates, the “superchemistry” of interacting atomic and molecular condensates, and atom laser theory.
This is the first book devoted to Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) as an interdisciplinary subject, covering atomic and molecular physics, laser physics, low temperature physics and astrophysics. It contains 18 authoritative review articles on experimental and theoretical research in BEC and associated phenomena. Bose–Einstein condensation is a phase transition in which a macroscopic number of particles all go into the same quantum state. It has been known for some time that this phenomenon gives rise to superfluidity in liquid helium but recent research has focused on the search for BEC in other condensed matter systems, such as excitons, spin-polarised hydrogen, laser-cooled atoms, high-temperature superconductors and subatomic matter. This unique book gives an in-depth report on progress in this field and suggests promising research topics for the future. It will be of interest to graduate students and research workers in condensed matter, low temperature, atomic and laser physics.
Bose-Einstein condensation represents a new state of matter and is one of the cornerstones of quantum physics, resulting in the 2001 Nobel Prize. Providing a useful introduction to one of the most exciting fields of physics today, this text will be of interest to a growing community of physicists, and is easily accessible to non-specialists alike.
The 1995 observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapours spawned the field of ultracold, degenerate quantum gases. Unprecedented developments in experimental design and precision control have led to quantum gases becoming the preferred playground for designer quantum many-body systems. This self-contained volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose–Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton–polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics. Thematically organised chapters on different methodologies, contributed by key researchers using a unified notation, provide the first integrated view of the relative merits of individual approaches, aided by pertinent introductory chapters and the guidance of editorial notes. Both graduate students and established researchers wishing to understand the state of the art will greatly benefit from this comprehensive and up-to-date review of non-equilibrium and finite temperature techniques in the exciting and expanding field of quantum gases and liquids. Contents:Introductory Material:Quantum Gases: The BackgroundQuantum Gases: Experimental ConsiderationsQuantum Gases: Background Key Theoretical NotionsUltracold Bosonic Gases: Theoretical Modelling:Kinetic and Many-Body ApproachesClassical-Field, Stochastic and Field-Theoretic ApproachesComparison of Common TheoriesOverview of Related Quantum-Degenerate Systems:Nearly Integrable One-Dimensional SystemsOptical Lattice GeometriesLiquid HeliumDegenerate Fermi GasesExciton/Polariton Condensation Readership: Aimed at graduate level students and for researchers. Keywords:Quantum Gas;Bose–Einstein;Condensate;Mean Field;Classical Field;Quantum Dynamics;Cold Atom;Ultracold Atom;Superfluid;Non-Equilibrium;Kinetic Theory;Field Theory;Quantum Fluid;Quantum Liquid;Degenerate Gas;Quantum Statistics;Number-Conserving;Symmetry-Breaking;Finite Temperature;Fluctuations;Stochastic;Gross–Pitaevskii;Bogoliubov;Many Body;Phase-Space Methods;Low-Dimensional;Optical Lattice;Bose;Fermi;Exciton;Polariton;ThermalizationKey Features:This book provides a unique and editorially linked, impartial unified presentation of the leading theoretical models for quantum gases far from equilibrium, and at finite temperaturesIn addition to focusing on bosonic gases, this book also makes connections to related quantum gases and fluids, such as fermionic gases, atoms in optical lattices, as well as exciton and polariton condensatesIntroductory chapters make this book an essential, accessible resource to both graduate students and early researchers as well as established scientists, with individual chapters written and edited by prominent researchers in the fieldReviews:“This book should be the first reference point for learning about various theoretical approaches to describing quantum gases. The editors and contributors have created a unique book with well-written articles, meaningful comparisons of various approximation schemes, a uniform notation and more than one thousand references. In addition, the book features introductory chapters and up-to-date review articles of experimental methods and current frontiers. The completeness and depth of the presentation are impressive.”Wolfgang Ketterle, MIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms & Nobel Laureate