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In 1925 Einstein predicted that at low temperatures particles in a gas could all reside in the same quantum state. This gaseous state, a Bose–Einstein condensate, was produced in the laboratory for the first time in 1995 and investigating such condensates has become one of the most active areas in contemporary physics. The study of Bose–Einstein condensates in dilute gases encompasses a number of different subfields of physics, including atomic, condensed matter, and nuclear physics. The authors of this graduate-level textbook explain this exciting new subject in terms of basic physical principles, without assuming detailed knowledge of any of these subfields. Chapters cover the statistical physics of trapped gases, atomic properties, cooling and trapping atoms, interatomic interactions, structure of trapped condensates, collective modes, rotating condensates, superfluidity, interference phenomena, and trapped Fermi gases. Problem sets are also included in each chapter.
Bose-Einstein condensation of dilute gases is an exciting new field of interdisciplinary physics. The eight chapters in this volume introduce its theoretical and experimental foundations. The authors are lucid expositors who have also made outstanding contributions to the field. They include theorists Tony Leggett, Allan Griffin and Keith Burnett, and Nobel-Prize-winning experimentalist Bill Phillips. In addition to the introductory material, there are articles treating topics at the forefront of research, such as experimental quantum phase engineering of condensates, the “superchemistry” of interacting atomic and molecular condensates, and atom laser theory.
Bose-Einstein condensation represents a new state of matter and is one of the cornerstones of quantum physics, resulting in the 2001 Nobel Prize. Providing a useful introduction to one of the most exciting fields of physics today, this text will be of interest to a growing community of physicists, and is easily accessible to non-specialists alike.
Bose-Einstein condensation represents a new state of matter and is one of the cornerstones of quantum physics, resulting in the 2001 Nobel Prize. Providing a useful introduction to one of the most exciting fields of physics today, this text will be of interest to a growing community of physicists, and is easily accessible to non-specialists alike.
Interferometry, the most precise measurement technique known today, exploits the wave-like nature of the atoms or photons in the interferometer. As expected from the laws of quantum mechanics, the granular, particle-like features of the individually independent atoms or photons are responsible for the precision limit, the shot noise limit. However this “classical” bound is not fundamental and it is the aim of quantum metrology to overcome it by employing entanglement among the particles. This work reports on the realization of spin-squeezed states suitable for atom interferometry. Spin squeezing was generated on the basis of motional and spin degrees of freedom, whereby the latter allowed the implementation of a full interferometer with quantum-enhanced precision.
This book, written by experts in the fields of atomic physics and nonlinear science, covers the important developments in a special aspect of Bose-Einstein condensation, namely nonlinear phenomena in condensates. Topics covered include bright, dark, gap and multidimensional solitons; vortices; vortex lattices; optical lattices; multicomponent condensates; mathematical methods/rigorous results; and the beyond-the-mean-field approach.
At extremely low temperatures, clouds of bosonic atoms form what is known as a Bose-Einstein condensate. Recently, it has become clear that many different types of condensates -- so called fragmented condensates -- exist. In order to tell whether fragmentation occurs or not, it is necessary to solve the full many-body Schrödinger equation, a task that remained elusive for experimentally relevant conditions for many years. In this thesis the first numerically exact solutions of the time-dependent many-body Schrödinger equation for a bosonic Josephson junction are provided and compared to the approximate Gross-Pitaevskii and Bose-Hubbard theories. It is thereby shown that the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates is far more intricate than one would anticipate based on these approximations. A special conceptual innovation in this thesis are optimal lattice models. It is shown how all quantum lattice models of condensed matter physics that are based on Wannier functions, e.g. the Bose/Fermi Hubbard model, can be optimized variationally. This leads to exciting new physics.

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