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The key science and technology challenges which will facilitate the transition from a "make do and mend" philosophy inevitably restricting the degree of intelligence which can be engineered and the "designer materials systems" philosophy which is the ultimate goal are considered. The longer term vision will need to accord much more closely with nature's design paradigms, with control at the molecular, nano, micro and macro level of synthesis and assembly, of active self repair materials systems in function shapes.
Adaptronics is the term encompassing technical fields that have become known internationally under the names "smart materials", "intelligent structures", and "smart structures". Adaptronics contributes to the optimisation of systems and products. It bridges the gap between material and system or product, and incorporates the search for multi-functional materials and elements and their integration in systems or structures. The authors of this book have taken on the task of displaying the current state of the art in this fascinating field. The system components, actuators, sensors and controllers, technical fundamentals, materials, design rules and practical solutions are all described. Selected sample applications are also presented and current development trends are demonstrated.
FROM THE AUTHORS' PREFACE Sensors operating on interferometric principles and mounted inside optical fibers have recently been considered for measuring strain and temperature. Indeed, such sensors have successfully been employed for measuring pressure or temperature in fluids. Fiber optics sensors are especially adept for such measurements because sensors immersed in fluids can easily be calibrated by tests. Unfortunately, the use of fiber optic sensors inside solids is not as straightforward. Owing to the complex interactions between the sensor and the surrounding material, the relationship between the sensor output and the parameters of interest, namely the strain and temperature inside the material, cannot be determined by simple tests. And without the appropriate relationships, fiber optic sensors do not provide meaningful information. In general, the relationship providing the bridge between the sensor output and the engineering values of strain and temperature must be established via analytical models. The major aim of this book is to present such models for extrinsic and intrinsic Fabry-Perot sensors and for Bragg grating sensors embedded in or mounted on the surface of isotropic or anisotropic solids or immersed in fluids. The scope of the book is limited to the theory of fiber optic strain and temperature sensors. Accordingly, we have taken as our starting point the demodulated sensor signals. The hardware needed to produce these signals is not discussed. It is presumed that the reader is familiar with and has access to the sensor, light source, light detector and demodulator required for generating signals which can then be analyzed and interpreted by the methods presented in the book. The problem necessitates complex analytical developments. To assist the reader, the significant results are summarized in tables, and numerical examples are given illustrating the calculation procedures.
In this book we present a snapshot of the state of the art in photonics in 1994, showing typical applications and emerging new ones; discussing the key technologies behind these applications, their limitations, and prospects. The articles in this book are extended versions of the papers presented at the first International Conference on Applications ofPhotonic Technology (ICAPT'94), held in Toronto, Canada, on June 21-23, 1994. Photonics has been recognized as one of the key technologies for the 21 st century, as electronics was the technology of the 20th centrury and electrical engineering changed the life of people in the 19th century. According to the recent report of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in Paris (OECD), the market for photonics will grow dramatically in the next 10 years with an expected world-wide expenditure of US $230 billion from some US $30 billion in 1992. The explosion of information technology was the largest driving force for the deployment of photonic technology. It created insatiable demand for ever-higher data transmission and processing rates, which cannot be sustained by electronics alone. Boosted by the enonnous investment of the telecommunications and defense industries, the demand for photonics (or optoelectronics) is steadily increasing. It is solidly established in the long haul communications, laser printers and CD-ROMs.
This book is the first to address the field of structurally integrated fiber optic sensors. Fiber optic sensors embedded within materials and systems are able to measure a variety of parameters (i.e. temperature, vibration, deformation, strain, etc.) that allows for real time non-destructive evaluation. Examples include the following: monitoring structural fatigue in aging aircraft or loads in bridge structures. In more advanced applications, fiber optic sensors control actuators that allow materials to adapt to their environment. This gives rise to the names, "smart," "intelligent," and/or "adaptive" materials or structures. Structural Monitoring with Fiber Optic Technology is the firs single author book on the new field of fiber optic structural sensing. As such it provides: coverage of the fundamentals of the technology, a coherent and systematic discussion on the most important aspects of the subject, a broad view of the subject, while retaining a degree of focus on those advances most significant in terms of their future potential, particularly in regard to broad implementation of the technology. The book provides an introduction to the relevant value to structural monitoring. It also highlights the advantages of fiber optic based sensors over conventional electrical measurement technology. The book richly illustrates the subject matter with 615 figures and provides many examples of fiber optic structural sensing, including a detailed overview of a number of major field site applications. Most of these large scale applications are drawn from the civil engineering community as they have been the first to strongly embrace fiber optic structural monitoring. This is especially true for bridges, where innovative new designs and the use of fiber reinforced polymer composite materials to replace steel represents a major advance that is expected to revolutionize the construction industry. Examples include new bridges, which are serving as testbeds for these new materials and are instrumented with arrays of fiber optic structural sensors. In one case, this state-of-the-art monitoring system permits engineers at a distant site to track the response of the bridge to traffic loads and keep an eye on the long term performance of the new materials. Fiber optic structural sensing technology is equally applicable to other industrial sectors, such as the aerospace and marine industries. Indeed, several examples of ships being instrumented with arrays of fiber optic sensors are also included. * The author directed one of the leading laboratories in the development of this technology and its application to civil engineering * Provides a strong, concise foundation in the basics of the technology * Includes many examples of the application of the technology, including many major field site case studies * Richly illustrated with 615 figures, many redrawn to make them easier to understand; also includes over 600 references * Written in a style designed to help the reader unfamiliar with fiber optic technology appreciate what can be accomplished with this new form of structural monitoring

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