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This book describes nerve agents and vesicants, their decomposition and their degradation products' chemistry as well as their toxicity including a list of detection techniques of nerve agents and their degradation products. This book will present their history, toxicity, comparison between different sample preparation methods, separation techniques, and detection methods all together in a short, easy to read book, tied together by a single group doing the writing and the editing to assure smooth transition from chapter to chapter, with sufficient Tables and literature references for the reader who looks to further detail.The text will illustrate the pluses and minuses of the various techniques with sufficient references for the reader to obtain extensive detail.
Ratification of the Chemical Weapons Convention by more than 165 States Parties has reduced the risk of chemical warfare agent use, but there still remains a concern that other parties may make use of these weapons against civilian or military targets. Concerns within the defense and homeland security communities over possible terrorist use as well as the requirements for a verifiable Chemical Weapons Convention have driven the development of analytical methods such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the detection and identification of chemical warfare agents. This paper provides a general overview of chemical warfare agents and analytical methods for their analysis, a focused review of LC-MS applications, a summary of in-house LC-MS methods developed at DRDC Suffield, and a comprehensive bibliography of analytical open literature papers dealing with chemical warfare agent detection and identification. The review sections provide the homeland security and defense communities with an overview of chemical warfare agents and analytical methods for their determination. Researchers interested in developing new methods for chemical warfare agents may use the reviewed material to quickly ascertain the state of development of analytical methods, in particular LC-MS methods, for chemical warfare agents. The reviewed materials will be used for reference purposes during the development of high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) mass spectrometry, a new analytical technique with the potential to rapidly separate and identify chemical warfare agents. The report concludes with 67 references. Appendix A is a 454-item bibliography of open literature analytical methods for the detection and identification of chemical warfare agents, their degradation products, and related compounds. Paper copies of each paper are held at DRDC Suffield and this comprehensive database of methods continues to be updated regularly using Procite software.
Over the past several years Defence Research Establishment Suffield (DRES) developed LC-ESI-MS methods for the analysis of a variety of samples of chemical defence interest. These samples included hydrolysed munitions grade mustard, degraded 0-ethyl S-2-(DIISOPROPYLAMINO)ETHYL methylphosphonothiolate (VX), snow contaminated with sarin (GB), soil contaminated with sarin (GB) and soman (GD), munitions grade tabun (GA), failed synthetic products and synthetic standards. During these investigations DRES acquired ESI-MS data for sixty chemical warfare agents, degradation products and related compounds. Data were obtained with a resolution of 5000 (50% valley definition) in the continuum mode at several sampling cone voltages. At lower sampling cone voltages the mass spectra were dominated by protonated, sodiated and protonated acetonitrile adducts and/or their dimers that could be used to confirm the molecular mass of each compound. Structural information was obtained by inducing product ion formation in the ESI interface at higher sampling cone voltages. Representative data obtained at both a lower and higher sampling cone voltage were selected for entry into the DRES ESI-MS Database as part of a collaboration between Canada (DRES) and The Netherlands (TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory).
This volume summarises the materials presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Sea-Dumped Chemical Munitions, held in Kaliningrad (Moscow Region), Russia, in January 1995. The conference was sponsored by the NATO Division of Scientific and Environmental Affairs in the framework of its outreach programme to develop co-operation between NATO member countries and the Cooperation Partner countries in the area of disarmament technologies. The problem of the ecological threat posed by chemical weapons (CW) dumped in the seas after the Second World War deserves considerable international attention: the amount of these weapons, many of them having been captured from the German Army, is assessed at more than three times as much as the total chemical arsenals reported by the United States and Russia. They were disposed of in the shallow depths of North European seas - areas of active fishing - in close proximity to densely populated coastlines, with no consideration of the long-term consequences. The highly toxic material have time and again showed up, for instance when retrieved occasionally in the fishing nets, attracting local media coverage only. Nevertheless, this issue has not yet been given adequate and comprehensive scientific analysis, the sea-disposed munitions are not covered by either the Chemical Weapons Convention or other arms control treaties. In fact, the problem has been neglected for a long time on the international level. Only recently were official data made available by the countries which admitted conducting dumping operations.
Describes the procedures for collection of samples, sample preparation, and analysis of CWC-related chemicals. It deals with analytical procedures that can be followed in well-equipped off-site laboratories (designated laboratories), as well as the on-site analytical procedures that the OPCW inspectors use in sample collection and preliminary analysis of the samples in field conditions. A one-of-a-kind, highly topical handbook for every expert in the chemical weapons field Outlines the methods for analysing chemical weapons both on and off site Authored by international experts in the field from top laboratories in both government and academic institutions
This book provides an up-to-date treatise on the on-going research into the toxicology of chemical warfare agents, the diagnosis and verification of exposure, and the pre- and post-exposure treatment of poisoning.

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