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Three-dimensional (3D) integration is identified as a possible avenue for continuous performance growth in integrated circuits (IC) as the conventional scaling approach is faced with unprecedented challenges in fundamental and economic limits. Wafer level 3D IC can take several forms, and they usually include a stack of several thinned IC layers that are vertically bonded and interconnected by through silicon via TSV. There is a long string of benefits that one can derive from 3D IC implementation such as form factor, density multiplication, improved delay and power, enhanced bandwidth, and heterogeneous integration. This book presents contributions by key researchers in this field, covering motivations, technology platforms, applications, and other design issues.
Physical Design for 3D Integrated Circuits reveals how to effectively and optimally design 3D integrated circuits (ICs). It also analyzes the design tools for 3D circuits while exploiting the benefits of 3D technology. The book begins by offering an overview of physical design challenges with respect to conventional 2D circuits, and then each chapter delivers an in-depth look at a specific physical design topic. This comprehensive reference: Contains extensive coverage of the physical design of 2.5D/3D ICs and monolithic 3D ICs Supplies state-of-the-art solutions for challenges unique to 3D circuit design Features contributions from renowned experts in their respective fields Physical Design for 3D Integrated Circuits provides a single, convenient source of cutting-edge information for those pursuing 2.5D/3D technology.
3D integration is an emerging technology for the design of many-core microprocessors and memory integration. This book, Advances in 3D Integrated Circuits and Systems, is written to help readers understand 3D integrated circuits in three stages: device basics, system level management, and real designs. Contents presented in this book include fabrication techniques for 3D TSV and 2.5D TSI; device modeling; physical designs; thermal, power and I/O management; and 3D designs of sensors, I/Os, multi-core processors, and memory. Advanced undergraduates, graduate students, researchers and engineers may find this text useful for understanding the many challenges faced in the development and building of 3D integrated circuits and systems. Contents:IntroductionDevice Modeling:FabricationDevice ModelPhysical Design:MacromodelTSV AllocationTestingThermal Management:Power and Thermal System ModelMicrofluidic Based CoolingI/O Management:Power I/O ManagementSignal I/O ManagementSensorI/OMicroprocessorNon-volatile Memory Readership: Advanced undergraduates, graduate students, researchers and professionals dealing with 3D Integrated Circuits and Systems. Keywords:3D Integration;2.5D Integration;Through-silicon vias;Through-Silicon Interposer;Thousand-Core On-Chip;TSV Fabrication;TSI Fabrication;Device Modeling;Macromodeling;Power/Signal Integrity;Thermal TSV;Pre-Bond TSV Test;Post-Bond TSV Test;Microfluidic Channel;Thermal Management;Power I/O Management;Signal I/O;Voltage-Swing Tuning;Memory Controller;Sensor Design;Low Power I/O Buffer;Clock-Data Recovery;Multi-Core Microprocessor;Accelerator;3D Hybrid Memory;ReRAMKey Features:This book that presents a comprehensive overview on the subject of 3D integrated circuits focusing on the design of circuits and systemsThis book covers multiple topics about 3D integrated circuits, starting from fabrication, to modeling; then moving to system level power, thermal and I/O management techniques; and finally, the design examples of emerging technologies
This book presents the research challenges that are due to the introduction of the 3rd dimension in chips for researchers and covers the whole architectural design approach for 3D-SoCs. Nowadays the 3D-Integration technologies, 3D-Design techniques, and 3D-Architectures are emerging as interesting, truly hot, broad topics. The present book gathers the recent advances in the whole domain by renowned experts in the field to build a comprehensive and consistent book around the hot topics of three-dimensional architectures and micro-architectures. This book includes contributions from high level international teams working in this field.
This book explores the challenges and presents best strategies for designing Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) for 3D integrated circuits. It describes a novel technique to mitigate TSV-induced noise, the GND Plug, which is superior to others adapted from 2-D planar technologies, such as a backside ground plane and traditional substrate contacts. The book also investigates, in the form of a comparative study, the impact of TSV size and granularity, spacing of C4 connectors, off-chip power delivery network, shared and dedicated TSVs, and coaxial TSVs on the quality of power delivery in 3-D ICs. The authors provide detailed best design practices for designing 3-D power delivery networks. Since TSVs occupy silicon real-estate and impact device density, this book provides four iterative algorithms to minimize the number of TSVs in a power delivery network. Unlike other existing methods, these algorithms can be applied in early design stages when only functional block- level behaviors and a floorplan are available. Finally, the authors explore the use of Carbon Nanotubes for power grid design as a futuristic alternative to Copper.
This cutting-edge book on off-chip technologies puts the hottest breakthroughs in high-density compliant electrical interconnects, nanophotonics, and microfluidics at your fingertips, integrating the full range of mathematics, physics, and technology issues together in a single comprehensive source. You get full details on state-of-the-art I/O interconnects and packaging, including mechanically compliant I/O approaches, fabrication, and assembly, followed by the latest advances and applications in power delivery design, analysis, and modeling. The book explores interconnect structures, materials, and packages for achieving high-bandwidth off-chip electrical communication, including optical interconnects and chip-to-chip signaling approaches, and brings you up to speed on CMOS integrated optical devices, 3D integration, wafer stacking technology, and through-wafer interconnects.
Three-dimensional (3D) integration of microsystems and subsystems has become essential to the future of semiconductor technology development. 3D integration requires a greater understanding of several interconnected systems stacked over each other. While this vertical growth profoundly increases the system functionality, it also exponentially increases the design complexity. Design of 3D Integrated Circuits and Systems tackles all aspects of 3D integration, including 3D circuit and system design, new processes and simulation techniques, alternative communication schemes for 3D circuits and systems, application of novel materials for 3D systems, and the thermal challenges to restrict power dissipation and improve performance of 3D systems. Containing contributions from experts in industry as well as academia, this authoritative text: Illustrates different 3D integration approaches, such as die-to-die, die-to-wafer, and wafer-to-wafer Discusses the use of interposer technology and the role of Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) Presents the latest improvements in three major fields of thermal management for multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs) Explores ThruChip Interface (TCI), NAND flash memory stacking, and emerging applications Describes large-scale integration testing and state-of-the-art low-power testing solutions Complete with experimental results of chip-level 3D integration schemes tested at IBM and case studies on advanced complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) integration for 3D integrated circuits (ICs), Design of 3D Integrated Circuits and Systems is a practical reference that not only covers a wealth of design issues encountered in 3D integration but also demonstrates their impact on the efficiency of 3D systems.

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